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Geography

Axminster Community Primary Academy Curriculum 2019-20

Rationale

In a world that is increasingly culturally diverse and dynamically interconnected, it is important that our pupils come to understand their world, past and present, and develop a capacity to respond to challenges, now and in the future, in innovative, informed, personal and collective ways.

The Axminster Primary Academy Curriculum for the Humanities and Social Sciences plays an important role in harnessing pupils’ curiosity and imagination about the world they live in and empowers them to actively shape their lives; make reflective, informed decisions; value their belonging in a diverse and dynamic society; and positively contribute locally, nationally, regionally and globally.

Thinking about and responding to issues requires an understanding of different perspectives; the key historical, geographical, political, economic and societal factors involved; and how these different factors interrelate. The Humanities and Social Sciences in Foundation - Year 6 (F-6), which encompasses the knowledge and understandings of history, geography, civics and citizenship, and economics and business, gives Pupils a deep understanding of the world they live in from a range of perspectives, past and present, and encourages them to develop an appreciation and respect for social, cultural and religious diversity.

The Axminster Primary Academy Curriculum for the Humanities and Social Sciences empowers Pupils to shape change by developing a range of skills to enable them to make informed decisions and solve problems. The subject provides Pupils with the skills, behaviours and capabilities that will equip them to face challenges in their lifetime and to participate in and contribute to the wellbeing and sustainability of the environment, the economy and society. Through studying Humanities and Social Sciences, Pupils are given opportunities to develop their ability to question, think critically, solve problems, communicate effectively, make decisions and adapt to change.

Through the Humanities and Social Sciences, Pupils become well placed to contribute to Axminster Community Primary Academy ideas of a cohesive society, sustainable environment, productive economy and stable democracy.

Aims 

The Axminster Primary Academy Curriculum for Humanities and Social Sciences aims to ensure that Pupils develop:

  • A sense of wonder, curiosity and respect about places, people, cultures and systems throughout the world, past and present, and an interest in and enjoyment of the study of these phenomena
  • Key historical, geographical, civic and economic knowledge of people, places, values and systems, past and present, in local to global contexts
  • An understanding and appreciation of historical developments, geographic phenomena, civic values and economic factors that shape society, influence sustainability and create a sense of belonging
  • The capacity to use inquiry methods and skills, including questioning, researching using reliable sources, analysing, evaluating and communicating
  • dispositions required for effective participation in everyday life, now and in the future, including critical and creative problem-solving, informed decision making, responsible and active citizenship, enterprising financial behaviour and ethical reflection.

Structure

 The Axminster Primary Academy Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences is a curriculum that is organised into two interrelated strands: knowledge and understanding and inquiry and skills.

Knowledge and understanding strand

The Humanities and Social Sciences curriculum encompasses knowledge and understanding from the four sub-strands of history, geography, civics and citizenship, and economics and business. The curriculum includes the sub-strands of history and geography in Foundation Year to Year 2, and introduces the sub-strand of civics and citizenship in Year 3, and the sub-strand of economics and business in Year 5.

Table 1: Organisation of sub-strands in the Axminster Primary Academy Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences

Foundation – Year 2

Years 3–4

Years 5–6

Geography

Geography

Geography

History

History

History

N/A

Civics and Citizenship

Civics and Citizenship

N/A

N/A

Economics and Business

Concepts of disciplinary thinking

Each of the four sub-strands in the Humanities and Social Sciences has its own way of thinking. The Axminster Primary Academy Curriculum: Humanities and Social Sciences focuses on developing pupils’ ability to apply concepts of disciplinary thinking. The concepts of disciplinary thinking for each of the sub-strands are outlined below:

History: sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, significance, perspectives, empathy and contestability 

Geography: place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability and change, applying this understanding to a wide range of places and environments at the full range of scales, from local to global, and in a range of locations 

Civics and citizenship: government and democracy, laws and citizens, and citizenship, diversity and identity

Economics and business: Resource allocation and making choices, the business environment, and consumer and financial literacy

Inquiry and skills strand

The Humanities and Social Sciences sub-strands include a range of skills that are represented broadly as questioning, researching, analysing, evaluating and reflecting, and communicating. Pupils apply these skills to investigate events, developments, issues and phenomena, both historical and contemporary.

The inquiry skills in the Humanities and Social Sciences curriculum require explicit teaching, with the type of questions asked, the information, evidence and/or data gathered, and the analysis applied varying according to the sub-strand context.

Questioning

Pupils develop questions about events, people, places, ideas, developments, issues and/or phenomena – before, during and after stages of inquiry – to guide their investigations, satisfy curiosity and revisit findings.

Researching 

Pupils identify and collect information, evidence and/or data from primary and secondary sources, including observations. They organise, sequence, sort and categorise them in a range of discipline-appropriate formats.

Analysing 

Pupils explore information, evidence and data to identify and interpret features, distributions, patterns, trends and relationships, key points, fact and opinion, points of view, perceptions and interpretations. Pupils also identify the purpose and intent of sources and determine their accuracy and reliability.

Evaluating and reflecting

Pupils propose explanations for events, developments, issues and/or phenomena, draw evidence-based conclusions and use criteria and democratic processes to make informed decisions and judgements. They work with others with respect and reflect on learning to suggest courses of action in response to an issue or problem and predict possible and preferred effects of actions.

Communicating 

Pupils present ideas, findings, viewpoints, explanations, predictions, decisions, judgements and/or conclusions in appropriate digital and non-digital forms for different audiences and purposes, using discipline-specific terminology.

Figure 2: Sub-strand-specific illustrations of skills

The inquiry and skills strand has common content descriptions for Foundation– Year 2 and then for each band of schooling (Years 3–4, Years 5–6), yet with elaborations specific to each year to support the changing content of the knowledge and understanding strand.

Relationship between the strands

The two strands should be integrated in the development of a teaching and learning program. The knowledge and understanding strand, through the four sub-strands, is developed year by year and provides the contexts through which particular skills are developed.

Year level descriptions

Two year level descriptions are provided for each year level:

  • A description for the subject at each year level: these descriptions give an overview of learning for the year level across the sub-strands and identify connections between the sub-strands.
  • A description for each sub-strand: these descriptions provide the focus of study at each year level for that sub-strand. The descriptions identify the key concepts or ideas that are the focus for understanding and articulate how pupils’ knowledge and understanding in each sub-strand will be developed.

Key inquiry questions

Two sets of inquiry questions are provided for each year level:

  • Subject inquiry questions provide guidance on how learning in two or more sub-strands might be connected.
  • Sub-strand inquiry questions provide a framework for developing pupils’ knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills, in the sub-strand.

Both sets of inquiry questions are intended as suggestions for teachers. Teachers can choose to use the inquiry questions that are appropriate for their Pupils, or they may adapt these or develop their own to suit their local context.

Achievement standards

The achievement standards describe expected learning at each year level. Each achievement standard describes the depth of conceptual understanding and the sophistication of skills expected of Pupils.

There are two types of achievement standards offered in the Humanities and Social Sciences curriculum:

  • An achievement standard at each year level for the Humanities and Social Sciences subject. This achievement standard provides a holistic statement of expected learning across the sub-strands.
  • An achievement standard at each year level for each of the knowledge and understanding sub-strands.

The ‘understanding’ paragraph in the subject achievement standard (Humanities and Social Sciences achievement standard) is organised by sub-strand. The concepts of disciplinary thinking that Pupils are expected to develop are identified in both the subject achievement standard (Humanities and Social Sciences achievement standard) and the sub-strand-specific achievement standards (history, geography, civics and citizenship, economics and business). For example, concepts of historical thinking that Pupils are expected to learn are articulated in both the subject achievement standard and the history sub-strand achievement standard. 

Although the achievement standards articulate the concepts of disciplinary thinking, the concepts of interdisciplinary thinking are also evident and can be used by teachers when they plan.

     
























Foundation Year Intent - My personal world

The Foundation curriculum focuses on developing Pupils’ understanding of their personal worlds, including their personal and family histories and the places they and their families live in and belong to. The emphasis is on the student’s own history and their own place. They explore why places are special to them and others. As pupils explore the people and features of their social and physical worlds, they examine representations of place and sources, which may include stories from family members and from different cultures. They may also study places of similar size that are familiar to them or that they are curious about, coming to see how people feel about and look after places. Learning about their own heritage and their own place contributes to pupils’ sense of identity and belonging, beginning the idea of active citizenship.


The content provides opportunities for Pupils to begin to develop an understanding of their world.


The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from two sub-strands: history and geography. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.


Inquiry Questions


A framework for developing pupils’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.


Who am I, where do I live and who came before me?

Why are some places and events special and how do we know?

Inquiry and skills 

Pose questions about past and present objects, people, places and events

  • posing questions about family and places having explored sources relating to their own life (for example, sources such as family interviews, photographs, stories, film, classmates’ paintings, excursions to places)
  •      
  • inquiring about the lives, places and events of family members and inquiring about their own history (for example, asking the questions ‘How old was I?’ ‘Where was I?’ and ‘What was I doing?’ in response to family photographs)

     

  • posing questions about artefacts of the past (for example, ‘Is it old or new?’, ‘What was it used for?’) and representations of places (for example, ‘Where is this place?’, ‘What does this show?’ and ‘What is that?’)

     

  • asking questions about the place they are in after being encouraged to observe it using different senses

Researching

Collect data and information from observations and identify information and data from sources provided

  • exploring sources (for example, pictures, photographs, story books, artefacts, excursions to places, family interviews) to gain information about the past

     

  • listening to stories from oral, audiovisual and other sources to find information about family, friends, celebrations, places.

     

  • observing the features of a special place (for example, their bedroom, under a tree) or local place (such as a beach, farm or ceremony site) and recording these observations

Sort and record information and data, including location, in tables and on plans and labelled maps

  • displaying sources related to an investigation (for example, historical sources such as pictures, photographs, family mementoes and geographic sources such as items collected in the field, sketches of observations, measurements)

  • contributing information to shared records of places, families and friends (for example, adding personal details to murals, concept maps, tally charts and pictorial tables)
  •      
  • illustrating on a pictorial map, or by making a model, the location of their home in relation to school or other features of the local area

     

  • creating representations to show the location of features of familiar places (for example, making a map and illustrating it with pictures; using objects to create bird’s eye view models)

Sequence familiar objects and events

  • ordering images and objects (for example, photographs, drawings or artefacts) to show a sequence of significant personal events or milestones (such as age when beginning to walk and talk, at the birth of a sibling, when moving house, when new teeth appear, on the first day at school)

     

  • drawing story maps of events described in story books or in stories told by a storyteller

Analysing

Explore a point of view

  • comparing aspects of the childhood of parents, grandparents, elders or a familiar older person, with similar aspects of childhood today (for example, the favourite games of a familiar older person with those of self and class friends)
  •      
  • identifying places in the playground or local area that they like or places they like to avoid, and talking about the reasons for their feelings

Compare objects from the past with those from the present and consider how places have changed over time

  • talking about differences between objects from the past and those of the present using comparative language (for example, 'This toy is older', ‘My new computer game is more fun than the old one', ‘This tree is older than …’)

     

  • distinguishing between older and newer, using such clues as the condition of the object, the width of a tree, the height of a person

     

  • identifying natural and constructed features of a place that have changed over time and those that have remained relatively unchanged

Interpret data and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps

  • talking about the relevance of information to a task (for example, how to find treasure on a treasure map, why a class timetable is helpful, how a weather map can help us decide what clothes to wear)

     

  • sorting pictures of places and people using criteria such as old/new, younger/older, same/different, outside/inside, safe/not safe, special/not special

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on discussions, observations and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps

  • suggesting ideas about the use of objects from the past and proposing reasons why the objects might have been important
  •      
  • identifying how a story connects with an aspect of their family history (for example, how a story book shows how and where their grandparents or a familiar older person once lived)

Reflect on learning to propose how to care for places and sites that are important or significant

  • talking about what has been learnt about a place or site of significance to themselves or others and if they would like it to stay the same in the future

     

  • describing or drawing special places, telling what they have learnt that makes them special and suggesting how to behave when there

Communicating

Present narratives, information and findings in oral, graphic and written forms using simple terms to denote the passing of time and to describe direction and location

  • describing events they have experienced and/or different places they have visited, using different modes of communication, (for example, orally, through objects, pictures and drawings, role-play and photographs)    
  • reporting family history by presenting information in talk, drawings and play and by creating imaginative response   
  • using simple terms to denote the passage of time (for example, 'then', 'now', 'yesterday', 'today', 'tomorrow') when talking about their experiences
  • using appropriate terms to describe the direction and location of a place (for example, ‘near and far’, ‘above and below’, ‘beside and opposite’)

Knowledge and Understanding 

History

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the history sub-strand in this year gives Pupils opportunities to develop historical understanding through key concepts including continuity and change, perspectives, empathy and significance. Through studies of their family, familiar people and their own history, Pupils look at evidence of the past, exposing them to an early understanding that the past is different from the present (continuity and change). They come to understand why some events are important in their own and others’ lives (significance), and how different people commemorate events that are important to them (empathy, perspectives).


Inquiry Questions


What is my history and how do I know?

What stories do other people tell about the past?

How can stories of the past be told and shared?

Who the people in their family are, where they were born and raised and how they are related to each other

  • identifying and naming the different members of a family (for example, mother, father, step-parent, caregiver, sister, brother, grandparent, aunty, uncle, cousin) and creating concept maps of their family with pictures or photographs to show the relationship between family members
  •      
  • finding out where they were born and raised and placing their photographs, drawings and names on a classroom world map

How they, their family and friends commemorate past events that are important to them

  • making a calendar of commemorative events that Pupils, their family and friends celebrate (for example, birthdays, religious festivals such as Easter, Ramadan, Buddha’s Birthday, Feast of Passover; family reunions and community commemorations and discussing why they are important     
  • recognising ‘Acknowledgement of Country’ and ‘Welcome to Country’ at ceremonies and events to recognise that the Country/Place and traditional custodians of the land, sea, waterways and sky are acknowledged

How the stories of families and the past can be communicated, for example, through photographs, artefacts, books, oral histories, digital media and museums

  • recognising that the past is communicated through stories passed down from generation to generation     
  • sharing the story of an object from their family’s past (for example, a photograph, old toy, statue, medal, artwork, jewellery, stories), describing its importance to the family and creating a class museum     
  • recognising that stories of the past may differ depending on who is telling them (for example, listening to stories about the same event related by two different people such as a mother and a grandmothers
  • using images, Pupils’ stories and stories from other places to explore what families have in common (for example, people who provide for their needs and wants, love, safety, rituals, celebrations, rules, change such as new babies and dying)

Children talk about past and present events in their own lives and in the lives of family members.  They know that other children don’t always enjoy the same things, and are sensitive to this. They know about similarities and differences between themselves and others, and among families, communities and traditions.

  • Have a sense of one's own immediate family and relations.
  • In pretend play, imitates everyday actions and events from own family and cultural background, e.g. making and drinking tea.
  • Have their own friends.
  • Learns that they have similarities and differences that connect them to, and distinguish them from others.

  • Shows interest in the lives of people who are familiar to them.
  • Remember and talk about significant events in their own experience.
  • Recognises and describes special times or events for family or friends.
  • Know about different occupations and ways of life.
  • Know some of the things that make them unique, and can talk about some of the similarities and differences in relation to friends or family.

  • Understand different family customs and routines

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the geography sub-strand provides ways of developing Pupils’ understanding of place, space and environment. Pupils explore the place they live in and belong to, and learn to observe and describe its features, and why it is important to them. They explore their own special places, how they feel about them, what makes them special, and how they can care for them (place, environment). They learn that their place is also the place of others (place). The idea of location is introduced through learning about representations on which places can be located and drawing story maps and creating models to show where familiar places and features are located (space).


Inquiry Questions


What are places like?

What makes a place special?

How can we look after the places we live in?

The representation of the location of places and their features on simple maps and models

  • creating story maps or models to represent the location of the places and features they pass on their way to school
  •      
  • identifying the ways we represent the location of Country/Place and their features (for example, by inscriptions on stone, stories, sand drawings, paintings, song, music and dance)

     

  • describing how the globe is a representation of the world and locating the UK and other places on a globe

The representation of the location of places and their features on simple maps and models

  • identifying the places they live in and belong to (for example, a neighbourhood, suburb, town or rural locality)

     

  • describing the features of their own place and places they are familiar with or they are aware of (for example, places they have visited, places family members have come from, imaginary places in stories, or places featured on television)

     

  • identifying how places provide people with their basic needs (for example, water, food and shelter) and why they should be looked after for the future

The reasons why some places are special to people, and how they can be looked after

  • escribing the features of places that are special to them based on what they see, hear, smell and feel

     

  • discussing different ways they could contribute to caring for special places including those that are unique

Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things. They talk about the features of their own immediate 

environment and how environments might  vary from one another. They make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things  occur, and talk about changes.


  • Play with small-world models such as a farm, a garage, or a train track.
  • Notice detailed features of objects in their environment.

  • Comment and asks questions about aspects of their familiar world such as the place where they live or the natural world.
  • Talk about some of the things they have observed such as plants, animals, natural and found objects.
  • Talk about why things happen and how things work.
  • Develop an understanding of growth, decay and changes over time.
  • Show care and concern for living things and the environment.

  • Look closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change.

Impact 


By the end of Foundation Year, Pupils identify important events in their own lives and recognise why some places are special to people. They describe the features of familiar places and recognise that places can be represented on maps and models. They identify how they, their families and friends know about their past and commemorate events that are important to them.


Pupils respond to questions about their own past and places they belong to. They sequence familiar events in order. They observe the familiar features of places and represent these features and their location on pictorial maps and models. They reflect on their learning to suggest ways they can care for a familiar place. Pupils relate stories about their past and share and compare observations about familiar places.

By the end of the Foundation year, Pupils identify important events in their own lives. They identify how they, their families and friends know about their past and commemorate events that are important to them.


Pupils sequence familiar events in order. They respond to questions about their own past. Pupils relate a story about their past using a range of texts.


By the end of Foundation Year, Pupils describe the features of familiar places and recognise why some places are special to people. They recognise that places can be represented on maps and a globe and why places are important to people.


Pupils observe the familiar features of places and represent these features and their location on pictorial maps and models. They share and compare observations in a range of texts and use everyday language to describe direction and location. Pupils reflect on their learning to suggest ways they can care for a familiar place.









Year 1 Intent How my world is different from the past and can change in the future


The Year 1 curriculum provides a study of the recent past, the present and the near future within the context of the student’s own world. Pupils are given opportunities to explore how changes occur over time in relation to themselves, their own families, and the places they and others belong to. They examine their daily family life and how it is the same as and different to previous generations. They investigate their place and other places, their natural, managed and constructed features, and the activities located in them. They explore daily and seasonal weather patterns and how different groups describe them. They anticipate near future events such as personal milestones and seasons. The idea of active citizenship is introduced as Pupils explore family roles and responsibilities and ways people care for places.


The content provides opportunities for Pupils to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; place and space; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.


The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from two sub-strands: history and geography. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.


Inquiry Questions


A framework for developing Pupils’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.


How has family life and the place we live in changed over time?

What events, activities and places do I care about? Why?

Inquiry and skills 

Questioning

Pose questions about past and present objects, people, places and events

  • posing questions with the stems ‘where’, ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ about families, celebrations, places and the weather

   

  • asking questions before, during and after listening to stories about people and places and about their past and present

     

  • preparing questions for parents and members of older generations about how they lived in the past, where they lived and the places they value

     

  • collecting and displaying everyday objects (for example, toys, telephone, radio, cooking utensils, clothes) and other sources (for example, photos, found objects, maps, observation sketches) to stimulate ‘Where’, ‘What’, ‘When’, ‘How’ and ‘Why?’ questions

Researching

Collect data and information from observations and identify information and data from sources provided

  • exploring stories from the past and present about people and families (for example, fiction books, letters, diaries, songs) and about places (for example, myths, Dreaming and Creation stories, fiction, story maps, films)

     

  • gathering evidence of change in a local place (for example, by comparing current observations of a place with photographs of it taken in the past)

     

  • using geographical tools (for example, photographs taken from the air, Google Earth or digital image searches) to locate and identify the different features of places and how they have changed over time, including places with largely natural features and those with largely constructed features

     

  • gathering information about the weather and seasons from the media, their own observations and from stories

Sort and record information and data, including location, in tables and on plans and labelled maps

  • creating and sharing concept maps to show personal understanding of their world (for example, a web of family relationships and connections, or a mental map of their place and its important features or spaces)

     

  • making artefact and photo displays to show the features of a place (for example, collections of natural and constructed things from the environment) or to show the passing of time (for example, collections of things used when growing older, toys used by different generations) and labelling the display with simple captions

     

  • recording data about the location of places and their features on maps and/or plans (for example, labelling the location of their home and daily route to school on a map of the local area, drawing a plan of their classroom and labelling its activity spaces)

     

  • developing a pictorial table to categorise information (for example, matching clothes with seasons, activities with the weather, features and places, places with the work done)

Sequence familiar objects and events

  • using visual representations such as a ‘days of the week’ chart, a class timetable or a calendar to sequence events or tasks

     

  • describing what they see as they move from one point to another (for example, going from home to school, from the classroom to the library)

Analysing

Explore a point of view

  • comparing Pupils’ daily lives and those of their parents, grandparents, elders or familiar older person, and representing the similarities and differences in graphic form (for example, in a Venn diagram or Y-chart)

     

  • sharing personal preferences about their world (for example, their favourite weather, activities, places, celebrations) and explaining why they are favoured

Compare objects from the past with those from the present and consider how places have changed over time

  • identifying similarities and differences between activities over time by comparing objects of the past with those currently used (for example, comparing toys, games, clothes, phones, cooking utensils, tools, homework books)

     

  • using comparative language when describing family life over time and/or comparing features of places, such as ‘smaller than’, ‘bigger than’, ‘closer’, ‘further’, ‘not as big as’, ‘younger/older than’, ‘more rainy days’, ‘fewer/less’, ‘hottest/coldest’, ‘sunnier’, ‘windier than’

     

  • exploring stories, traditional and contemporary, about places and the past and how places have changed

     

  • categorising objects, drawings or images by their features and explaining their reasoning, for example, categorising the features of a local place into natural (native forest), constructed (street of houses) and managed (windbreak of trees)

Interpret data and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps

  • finding the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary relating to the past (for example, games such as jacks/knuckles and elastics; technology tools such as floppy discs or USBs, record player, cassette player)

     

  • using information gained from sources (for example, stories, photographs, fieldwork observations, satellite images, rock art) to answer ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions

     

  • finding a hidden item using a map or plan that shows its location

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on discussions, observations and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps

  • using collected information (for example, from stories told by parents, grandparents, elders or familiar older people; from geographic pictures) to make conclusions about change over time and place (for example, how occupations and/or technologies have changed; how places and behaviours change because of the seasons)

     

  • making conclusions after collecting and recording information about events over time (for example, a birthday chart that shows most class members are the same age; stories and pictures which confirm continuity of events over time, such as the local show) or about types of homes and locations where class members live (for example, an illustrated map showing that some Pupils live in town, some live on a farm, some live in a flat, or some live in a house)

     

  • imagining what the future may hold based on what they know of the past and present (for example, envisioning what the town they live in might look like in the near future by comparing photographs of the past with their observation of the present) or envisaging how an environment might change due to human activity (such as when a new planting of street trees grow)

Reflect on learning to propose how to care for places and sites that are important or significant (

  • recalling information about a place or a site and giving reasons why it should be cared for and commemorated or celebrated

     

  • describing features of a space or place (such as a chicken coop, a play area, their bedroom, the reading corner, the beach) that is important to them and explaining what they could do to care for it

     

  • discussing how their behaviours reflect what they have learnt about caring for important places and significant sites (for example, taking care around school wildlife, turning off taps and lights, following etiquettes in special sites)

     

  • imagining how a local feature or place might change in the future and proposing action they could take to improve a place or influence a positive future

Communicating

Present narratives, information and findings in oral, graphic and written forms using simple terms to denote the passing of time and to describe direction and location

  • creating shared texts (for example, pictorial charts, calendars, lists, recounts, wall murals/collages, big books) to record observations or report findings

     

  • retelling stories about life in the past through spoken narratives and the use of pictures, role-plays or photographs

     

  • using terms to denote the sequence of time (for example, ‘then’, ‘now’, ‘yesterday’, ‘today’, ‘past’, ‘present’, ‘later on’, ‘before I was born’, ‘in the future’ and ‘generations’)

     

  • explaining to classmates where places are, and the directions to be followed when moving from one place to another, with the use of appropriate terms for direction and location (for example, terms such as ‘beside’, ‘forward’, ‘up’, ‘down’, ‘by’, ‘near’, ‘further’, ‘close to’, ‘before’, ‘after’, ‘here’, ‘there’, ‘at’)

Knowledge and understanding 

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils to develop historical understanding through key concepts including continuity and change, perspectives, empathy and significance. The content for this year focuses on similarities and differences in family life over recent time (continuity and change, perspectives) and how people may have lived differently in the past (empathy). Pupils’ understanding is further developed as they consider dates and changes that have personal significance (significance). As Pupils continue to explore the past and the present, they begin to speculate about the future (continuity and change).


Inquiry Questions


How has family life changed or remained the same over time?

How can we show that the present is different from or similar to the past?

How do we describe the sequence of time?

Differences in family structures and roles today, and how these have changed or remained the same over time

  • considering a range of family structures (for example, nuclear families, one-child families, large families, single parent families, extended families, blended (step) families, adoptive parent families and grandparent families) as well as kinship groups, tribes and villages
  •      
  • comparing families in the present with those from the recent past (the families of parents, grandparents or familiar older person) in terms of their size and structure (for example, the different types of family such as nuclear, single parent, blended)

     

  • examining and commenting on the roles of family members over time (for example, listening to stories about the roles of mothers, fathers, caregivers and children in the past) and comparing these with family roles today (for example, work at home, work outside the home, child care, gender roles, children’s responsibilities, pocket money)

How the present, past and future are signified by terms indicating time, as well as by dates and changes that may have personal significance, such as birthdays, celebrations and seasons

  • predicting, using knowledge of the past and present (for example, what happened yesterday, what is likely to happen tomorrow, upcoming birthdays, celebrations and seasons) and ordering these references to time in sequence using terms such as ‘before’, ‘after’, ‘next’, ‘then’, ‘a long time ago’, and ‘then and now’

     

  • exploring how cultures recognise significant events (for example, the Chinese describe a child as being one year old on the day he/she is born; some religious groups don’t celebrate birthdays)

     

  • identifying dates and changes that have personal significance (for example, birth dates, moving house, changing schools, religious and school holidays), marking these on a calendar and counting down time, as well as noting that events of personal significance may differ according to Pupils’ cultural backgrounds

Differences and similarities between Pupils' daily lives and life during their parents’ and grandparents’ childhoods

  • comparing and commenting on photographs and oral histories (for example, talking to parents, grandparents and other elders) to find out how daily lives have changed

     

  • comparing what has changed over time (for example, homes, family traditions, leisure, communication technology, rules, how needs were met then and now, wants, and shopping/consumer habits)

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop Pupils’ understanding of place, space, environment and change. Pupils learn about the natural, managed and constructed features of places and how these features provide evidence of change (place, environment, change). Pupils understand that important activities are located in places and explore where they are located, and why (space). Pupils study the daily and seasonal weather patterns of their place and of other places, including how seasonal change is perceived by different cultures (place, environment). They come to understand how places are cared for (environment).


Inquiry Questions


What are the different features of places?

How can we care for places?

How have the features of places changed?

The natural, managed and constructed features of places, their location, how they change and how they can be cared for

  • using observations of the local place to identify and describe natural features (for example, hills, rivers, native vegetation), managed features (for example, farms, parks, gardens, plantation forests) and constructed features (for example, roads, buildings) and locating them on a map
  •      

     

  • using observations and/or photographs to identify changes in natural, managed and constructed features in their place (for example, recent erosion, revegetated areas, planted crops or new buildings)

     

  • describing local features people look after (for example, bushland, wetland, park or a heritage building) and finding out why and how these features need to be cared for, and who provides this care

Activities in the local place and reasons for their location

  • identifying the activities located in their place (for example, retailing, medical, educational, police, religious, office, recreational, farming, manufacturing, waste management activities), locating them on a pictorial map, and suggesting why they are located where they are

     

  • identifying which resources they can recycle, reduce, re-use or none of these, and what local spaces and systems (for example, rules, signs, waste collection truck routes) support these activities

     

  • exploring activities in the local rivers, lakes and coastal waters and identifying constructed features

     

  • describing how they rearrange the space within the classroom for different activities (for example, reading time or a drama)

Year 1 Achievement impact 

By the end of Year 1, Pupils identify and describe important dates and changes in their own lives. They explain how some aspects of daily life have changed over recent time while others have remained the same. They identify and describe the features of places and their location at a local scale and identify changes to the features of places. They recognise that people describe the features of places differently and describe how places can be cared for.


Pupils respond to questions about the recent past and familiar and unfamiliar places by collecting and interpreting information and data from observations and from sources provided. They sequence personal and family events in order and represent the location of different places and their features on labelled maps. They reflect on their learning to suggest ways they can care for places. They share stories about the past, and present observations and findings using everyday terms to denote the passing of time and to describe direction and location.

History - the end of Year 1, Pupils identify and describe important dates and changes in their own lives. They explain how some aspects of daily life have changed over recent time while others have remained the same.


Pupils sequence personal and family events in order, using everyday terms about the passing of time. They respond to questions about the past using sources provided. Pupils relate stories about life in the past, using a range of texts. 

Geography - By the end of Year 1, Pupils identify and describe the natural, managed and constructed features of places at a local scale and identify where features of places are located. They recognise that people describe the features of places differently. Pupils identify changes in features and describe how to care for places.


Pupils respond to questions about familiar and unfamiliar places by locating and interpreting information from sources provided. They represent the location of different places and their features on labelled maps and present findings in a range of texts and use everyday language to describe direction and location. They reflect on their learning to suggest ways that places can be cared for.





















Year 2

Year 2 Level Intent   - Our past and present connections to people and places



The Year 2 curriculum extends contexts for study beyond the personal to the community and to near and distant places that Pupils are familiar with or aware of, exploring connections between the past and present and between people and places. Pupils examine remains of the past in their local area, coming to understand how connections have changed the lives of people over time and space and how their community values and preserves connections to the past. They study where they are located in the world and how the world is represented on maps and through place names that reveal the history and value of these places. Pupils explore other cultures’ connections to their local place and their own connections to distant places. Through a study of technological change, Pupils see how they are both similar and different to people in the past and how they are connected to places near and far. The idea of citizenship is introduced as Pupils think about how people are connected.


The content provides opportunities for Pupils to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance, continuity and change, cause and effect, place and space, interconnections and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.


The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from two sub-strands: history and geography. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.


Inquiry Questions


A framework for developing Pupils’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.


What does my place tell me about the past and present?

How are people connected to their place and other places, past or present?

How has technology affected daily life over time and the connections between people in different places?

Inquiry and skills 

Questioning

Pose questions about past and present objects, people, places and events

  • developing how, when, where, why questions at the start of and during an investigation and then revisiting the questions to check if they have been answered
  •      
  • developing inquiry questions about a historical site (for example, ‘What does it look like now?’, ‘What condition is it in?’, ‘What was its purpose?’, ‘How might its use have changed?’, ‘How was it built/created?’, ‘Who built it?’, ‘How is it now used?’, ‘Why is it important?’)

     

  • developing inquiry questions about places (for example, ‘What are the features of the place?’, ‘How far away is it?’, ‘How easy is it to get to?’, ‘How am I connected to it?’)

     

  • posing questions using the stems, ‘How do I feel about …’, ’What would it be like to …’ and ‘What effect …’

Researching

Collect data and information from observations and identify information and data from sources provided

  • identifying information in sources relevant to learning about the past (for example, photographs, interviews, newspapers, stories and maps, including those online) and sources relevant to learning about places (satellite images, globes, diagrams, measurements, field photographs)

     

  • locating historical evidence of the local community’s past (for example, place and street names that commemorate people, monuments, built and non-built historical landmarks, middens, remnants of native vegetation and old building remains)

     

  • surveying peers to discover how they are connected to people in other places in the UK and the world, or to find out how frequently they visit places and for what purpose

     

Sort and record information and data, including location, in tables and on plans and labelled maps

  • sorting and recording written or pictorial information or survey results in tables under headings such as ‘then/now’, ‘past/present/future’, ‘places near/far’, ‘places visited’, ‘purpose’, ‘frequency’, ‘distance’

     

  • creating pictorial maps with annotations to show familiar local and/or historical sites, their features and location, and adding further information as extra sites are identified

     

  • locating the places they are connected to (such as through family, travel, friends), or the places they visit for shopping, recreation or other reasons on a print, electronic or wall map

     

  • making a map or plan of significant places in the community, incorporating symbols to show location of objects or significant features

Sequence familiar objects and events

  • ordering key events in the history of the local community or in its development (for example, the history of the school; developmental stages of telecommunications technologies)
  •      
  • creating a timeline, slideshow or story to show how things develop sequentially (for example, seasonal change in plants, cycles of the weather, personal growth milestones)

Analysing

Explore a point of view

  • discussing why some places are considered special or significant by others (for example, by parents, their grandparents or familiar elders their friends, returned soldiers, wildlife workers)

     

  • examining the points of view of older generations about changes over time (for example, changes to the natural or built environment, changes to daily living)

     

  • listening to different stories (for example, Dreaming and Creation stories) about reasons for the change of seasons or about how natural features of Earth were created

Compare objects from the past with those from the present and consider how places have changed over time

  • comparing places that differ over time or across location (for example, climate, natural environment, plants, animals, people’s home)

     

  • identifying how objects and activities are similar or different depending on conditions in local and distant places (for example, clothes, transport, technology)

     

  • identifying features of a site that reveal its past (such as decorations and plaques on buildings) and suggesting clues that help understanding of its history (such as dates, ageing, building style)

     

  • examining a historical site (for example, a home, a school) to explore how technology has changed life over time (for example, how and where food was obtained and prepared, how people travelled, how people stayed warm or cool, how sewerage was managed, types of work, the roles of men, women, boys and girls)

Interpret data and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps

  • interpreting distance on maps using terms such as ‘metres’, ‘distant’, ‘close’, ‘local’, ‘many hours in a bus/car/plane’, ‘walking distance’ to decide on the accessibility of different features and places

     

  • interpreting flowcharts and geographic and concept maps to explore system connections (for example, places members of their class are connected to, where some food comes from, how songlines connect places)

     

  • interpreting symbols and codes that provide information (for example, map legends)

     

  • explaining what intangible boundaries mean or why they exist (for example, the equator as a division on a globe, out-of-bounds areas shown on a plan of the school)

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on discussions, observations and information displayed in pictures and texts and on maps

  • making generalisations from data showing patterns and relationships (for example, the relationship between the distance of places and the frequency of visits to them; between rubbish in the school and eating areas; between marine animals and where human rubbish may go; between climate zones and clothing or housing)
  •      
  • discussing the history or value of places in the local community from an exploration of place names 

Reflect on learning to propose how to care for places and sites that are important or significant

  • reflecting on their increasing knowledge of special places and natural systems in their local area and, whether their ideas about and behaviours have changed as a result of greater understanding

     

  • sharing with their teacher, other Pupils and members of their family what they know and have learnt about connections with other places, and explaining the significance of these connections

     

  • using their knowledge about a familiar place or site to imagine how it might change in the future and how they can influence a positive future for it

Communicating

Present narratives, information and findings in oral, graphic and written forms using simple terms to denote the passing of time and to describe direction and location

  • conveying information about the past and familiar places by representing ideas in written, spoken, pictorial or performance modes and by creating imaginative responses

     

  • composing reports with multimedia to share findings (for example, findings of a comparison of past and present daily life, a report on how access to and use of a place has changed over time, or recommendations on a building of significance)

     

  • describing a significant person from their community’s past in a short report or biography or through a fictional journal based on facts

  • using terms in speech and writing to denote the passing of time (for example, ‘in the past’, ‘years ago’, ‘the olden days’, ‘in the future’) and to describe direction and location (for example, north, south, opposite, near, far)

Knowledge and Understanding 

History

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils to develop historical understanding through key concepts including continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. Through studies of their local area, Pupils explore, recognise and appreciate the history of their community. Pupils examine remains of the past and consider why they should be preserved (significance, cause and effect, perspectives). They examine the impact of technology of people’s lives (continuity and change, cause and effect), and speculate about people’s lives in the past to further develop their understanding that people lived differently in the past (continuity and change, perspectives, empathy).


Inquiry Questions


What aspects of the past can you see today? What do they tell us?

What remains of the past are important to the local community? Why?

How have changes in technology shaped our daily life?

The history of a significant person, building, site and/or part of the natural environment in the local community and what it reveals about the past

  • using the internet, newspapers, community information guides and local knowledge to identify and list the people and places promoted as being of historic interest in the local community
  •      
  • suggesting reasons for the location of a local landmark (for example, community building, landmark or war memorial) before searching for resources that provide an explanation

     

  • investigating the history of a chosen person, building, site or landmark in the local community using sources (for example, books, newspapers, oral histories, audio/visual material, digital sources, letters, photographs) and relating a story which these reveal about the past

The importance today of a historical site of cultural or spiritual significance in the local area, and why it should be preserved

  • discussing why a particular site has heritage significance/cultural value for present generations (for example, it provides a record of a significant historical event, has aesthetic value, reflects the community’s identity)

     

  • identifying and visiting (where appropriate) local sites, places and landscapes of significance to people (local and south west - paintings, natural sites or features such as Stonehenge/Jurassic coast/Charmouth )

     

  • identifying and designing a local historical tour of a building or site (for example, one related to a particular cultural group)

How changing technology affected people’s lives (at home and in the ways they worked, travelled, communicated and played in the past)

  • examining changes in technology over several generations by comparing past and present objects and photographs, and discussing how these changes have shaped people’s lives (for example, changes to land, air and sea transport; the move from wood-fired stoves to gas/electrical appliances; the introduction of transistors, television, FM radio and digital technologies; how people shopped and what they liked to buy, changes in the nature of waste and how waste is managed)

     

  • identifying technologies used in the childhoods of their grandparents or familiar elders and in their own childhood, and finding out where each was produced

     

  • examining the traditional toys used by children to play and learn (for example, children learn to play string games so they can remember stories they have been told)

     

  • creating models of toys used by children who lived when electricity was not available

  • identifying some rules for children of past generations that do not apply in the present, and some rules of the present that did not exist in the past due to technological changes

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop Pupils’ understanding of place, space, environment and interconnection. Pupils develop a mental map of the world by learning the major geographical divisions on Earth (place, space, environment) and where they are located in relation to Britain (space). Pupils learn about the hierarchy of scale by which places are defined – from the personal scale of their home to the national scale of their country (scale). Pupils explore how distance and accessibility influence how often they visit places, and for what purpose (space, interconnection) and investigate their links with places locally and throughout the world (interconnection). 


Inquiry Questions


What is a place?

How are people connected to their place and other places?

What factors affect my connection to places?

The way the world is represented in geographic divisions and the location of Britain in relation to these divisions

  • investigating the definition of a continent and the seven-continent and six-continent models
  •      
  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe and world map) or digital applications such as Google Earth to locate and name the continents, oceans, equator, North and South Poles, tropics and hemispheres and then labelling an outline map

     

  • describing the location of continents and oceans relative to the UK, using terms such as north, south, opposite, near, far

The idea that places are parts of Earth’s surface that have been named by people, and how places can be defined at a variety

  • examining the names of features and places in the local area, the meaning of these names and why they were chosen

     

  • investigating the names and meanings given to local features and places by the local people

     

  • describing the scale of places, from the personal (home), the local (their, town or area), the regional (county) to the national (country)

The connections of people in the UK to people in other places in UK and across the world

  • examining the ways people are connected to other places (for example, through relatives, friends, things people buy or obtain, holidays, sport, family origin, beliefs, or through environmental practices such as where their waste ends up and its effect on people there)

     

  • exploring how their place may be connected to events that have happened in other places (for example, sporting events such as the Olympic Games or natural disasters like flooding/heatwaves in Europe)

     

The influence of purpose, distance and accessibility on the frequency with which people visit places

  • investigating the places they and their families visit for shopping, recreation, religious or ceremonial activities, or other reasons

     

  • suggesting what their pattern of visits to places might have been one or two generations ago and comparing this to their current pattern

     

  • investigating how people's connections with places are affected by transport and information and telecommunications technologies

Impact 

By the end of Year 2, Pupils describe a person, site and/or event of significance in the local community and explain why places are important to people. They identify how and why the lives of people have changed over time while others have remained the same. They recognise that the world is divided into geographic divisions and that places can be described at different scales. Pupils describe how people in different places are connected to each other and identify factors that influence these connections. They recognise that places have different meaning for different people and why the significant features of places should be preserved.


Pupils pose questions about the past and familiar and unfamiliar objects and places. They locate information from observations and from sources provided. They compare objects from the past and present and interpret information and data to identify a point of view and draw simple conclusions. They sequence familiar objects and events in order and sort and record data in tables, plans and on labelled maps. They reflect on their learning to suggest ways to care for places and sites of significance. Pupils develop narratives about the past and communicate findings in a range of texts using language to describe direction, location and the passing of time.


History - By the end of Year 2, Pupils describe a person, site and/or event of significance in the local community. They identify how and why the lives of people have changed over time while others have remained the same.


Pupils sequence events in order, using a range of terms related to time. They pose questions about the past and use sources provided to answer these questions and to identify a point of view. They compare objects from the past and present. Pupils develop a narrative about the past using a range of texts.


Geography - By the end of Year 2, Pupils identify the features that define places and recognise that places can be described at different scales. Pupils recognise that the world can be divided into major geographical divisions. They describe how people in different places are connected to each other and identify factors that influence these connections. They explain why places are important to people, recognising that places have meaning.


Pupils pose questions about familiar and unfamiliar places and answer them by locating information from observations and from sources provided. They represent data and the location of places and their features in tables, plans and on labelled maps. They interpret geographical information to draw conclusions. Pupils present findings in a range of texts and use simple geographical terms to describe the direction and location of places. They suggest action in response to the findings of their inquiry.

















Year 3 Intent - Diverse communities and places and the contribution people make


The Year 3 curriculum focuses on the diversity of people and places in their local community and beyond, and how people participate in their communities. Pupils study how places are represented geographically and how communities express themselves culturally and through civic participation. Opportunities are provided to learn about diversity within their community, and about other communities in the UK and neighbouring countries. Pupils compare the climates, settlement patterns and population characteristics of places, and how these affect communities, past and present. Pupils examine how individuals and groups celebrate and contribute to communities in the past and present, through establishing and following rules, decision-making, participation and commemoration.


The content provides opportunities for Pupils to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.


The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from three sub-strands: history, geography and civics and citizenship. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.


Inquiry Questions


A framework for developing Pupils’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.


How do symbols, events, individuals and places in my community make it unique?

How do people contribute to their communities, past and present?

What events do different people and groups celebrate and commemorate and what does this tell us about our communities?

Inquiry and skills 

Questioning

Pose questions to investigate people, events, places and issues

  • posing relevant questions when investigating the contribution individuals and groups have made to the development of the local community ('Who?', 'What?', 'When?', 'Where?', 'Why?')
  •      
  • developing inquiring questions as they investigate (for example, ‘Why there?’ questions about location; ‘What might happen?’ questions about future consequences of natural processes or people’s actions in places; and ‘What ought to happen?’ questions or other questions about ethical behaviour, sustainability and preferred futures)

     

  • asking key questions when investigating a topic (for example, questions such as 'How did people settle?', 'Who were they?', 'Why did they come to the area?' when researching the establishment of a local community) and probing questions during an investigation (for example, ‘Why is that so?’, ‘What else do we need to know?’)

     

  • posing evaluation questions (for example, ‘Is the process fair?’, ‘Could the process have been managed better?’)

Researching

Locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations

  • locating sources suited to learning about the past (for example, photographs, interviews, newspapers, stories and maps, including those online)

     

  • collecting information in the field (for example, taking photographs, making sketches, taking water measurements or collecting natural objects to support the investigation of eocological health, settlement or demographic details of a place)

     

  • collecting data from maps, aerial photographs, satellite images or a digital application (for example, Google Earth) to identify, locate and describe different types of settlement

     

  • collecting information about the changing composition of their community from sources, such as census data, cemetery observations, interviews with older people or surveys

     

  • interviewing people to seek information about feelings, preferences, perspectives and actions (for example, to find out how people feel about places; how people celebrate and commemorate; how decisions are made in different situations; how and why people participate in their community)

     

  • acquiring geographical information from schools in geographically contrasting parts of the UK and/or neighbouring countries

Record, sort and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different formats, including simple graphs, tables and maps, using discipline-appropriate

  • using information technologies to record and organise information in tables, databases and digital concept maps (for example, creating a consequence chart to show what happens when school rules are not followed, or when human settlement damages a component of the natural environment)
  •      
  • creating tables or picture and column graphs to show patterns in data collected from observations or other sources (for example, to show similarities and differences between places; the results of class votes on issues or decisions, participation in community activities, number of local monuments)

     

  • placing graphs and other data on electronic maps to visualise differences between types and patterns of settlements

     

  • constructing and annotating maps (for example, to show the natural and human features of Devon/UK) using the appropriate cartographic conventions including map symbols, title and north point

Sequence information about people’s lives and events

  • developing an annotated timeline (for example, a timeline of celebrations and commemorations)

     

  • creating visual representations of a sequence of events or happenings (for example, the stages involved in making decisions in a familiar context, such as a planning a class activity, the sequence of seasonal changes in different climates)

Analysing

Examine information to identify different points of view and distinguish facts from opinions

  • distinguishing fiction and non-fiction texts in relation to representation of places, environments and past events

     

  • identifying statements of fact and statements of opinion in class discussions

     

  • identifying differences in the meaning of celebrations when viewed from different perspectives that result in different actions 

     

  • exploring stories about places and people told by people from other cultures including people from Asia and the Pacific region

     

  • sharing points of view and identifying different perspectives and actions relating to issues that affect themselves and their peers (for example, discussing class rules, the different responses to them by class members, different perceptions of the value of places and ecosystems in the local area, communicating across cultures)

Interpret data and information displayed in different formats, to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns

  • finding the meaning of acronyms/initialisms they encounter (for example, NAIDOC, ANZAC, NZ, USA, ACT)

     

  • interpret data to identify patterns of change over time using graphic organisers (for example, a Venn diagram using data collected from different times and groups to compare St George’s Day celebrations over time; a scattergram of cemetery headstone information to make inferences about changing life expectancy)

     

  • identifying differences in the representation of a place on a map, in an aerial photo and in a satellite image and discussing how different methods of representation give different information about distributions and patterns

     

  • interpreting cartographic information such as titles, map symbols, north point, compass direction, grid references and major lines of latitude

     

  • using maps, ground and aerial photographs and satellite images or a digital application (for example, European Space Agency, NASA World Wind or Google Earth), to identify, locate and describe geographical patterns and distributions (for example, different types and patterns of settlements in UK and Europe)

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on analysis of information and data

  • explaining conclusions about how their place and community have changed and developed (for example, settlement patterns, local changes in plant and animal species, historic events, cultural celebrations)

     

  • drawing conclusions about their community’s heritage based on an evaluation of information provided by the local council (for example, the development of its multicultural profile; its significant events and how people have participated in them and contributed to their maintenance; the preservation of unique features of the natural environment)

     

  • examining the meaning of diversity using examples drawn from their community (such as celebrations and commemorations), drawn from other countries (such as environments, climate, lifestyle, settlement) and from the experiences of their peers (such as how they participate in their family and community)

Interact with others with respect to share points of view

  • sharing and listening to others’ stories about their community and place 

     

  • understanding their roles, rights and responsibilities in group situations

     

  • respecting ways to ensure others’ points of view are shared in group situations (for example, adhering to and defending strategies that enable turn-taking and eliminate talking over others)

     

  • valuing for and against arguments when making personal and group decisions

Reflect on learning to propose actions in response to an issue or challenge and consider possible effects of proposed actions

  • recalling what they know when contributing ideas to a group response to a community challenge (for example, planning how to celebrate a unrecognised cultural event; such as how local people celebrate their Country/Place or how to retell a historical event from a silent or unfamiliar voice)

     

  • reflecting on anticipated effects of actions designed to protect and improve places that people perceive as important (for example, places of environmental value, cultural value or historic significance)

     

  • choosing and enacting roles for group work that recognise an awareness of members’ knowledge and skills and customs

     

  • considering the findings of an inquiry when developing a plan of action to achieve a set goal (for example, to protect a place, to participate in a community festival or commemoration, to raise awareness about an issue, to raise money for a purpose)

Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms

  • composing different types of texts to report findings of an investigation (for example, reporting on a historical investigation and its researched facts and findings by writing a biography about a noteworthy individual or group, a narrative account of a significant event, a report about a celebration, an explanation of the multicultural character of the community)

     

  • arguing a point of view on a civics and citizenship issue relevant to their lives (for example, the consequences of breaking school rules, the value of contributing in their community, the need to preserve an endangered species) and making effective use of persuasive language such as ‘I think’ and ‘I dis/agree that’ to gain the support of others

     

  • describing the location and direction from a local place in the UK to a local place in at least two neighbouring countries (for example, England and Wales) using a globe or wall map

     

  • selecting and applying appropriate media to communicate their findings, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures

     

  • using subject-appropriate terms when speaking, writing and illustrating, for example, historical terms (such as ‘immigration’, ‘exploration’, ‘development’, ‘settlement’, ‘naming days of commemoration’ and ‘emblems’); geographical terms (such as ‘climate’, ‘settlement’, ‘environment’, ‘natural’ and ‘constructed’); and civic terms (such as ‘community’, ‘decision-making’, ‘participation’)

Knowledge and understanding 

History

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The Year 3 curriculum provides a study of identity and diversity in their local community and beyond, past and present. Pupils  develop understandings about the heritage of their local area (sources, continuity and change), including the importance of Country/Place to different people (significance, perspectives, empathy), and how and why their community has changed (continuity and change, cause and effect). Pupils  explore the historical features and diversity of their community as represented in individuals and their contributions, symbols and emblems of significance (significance) and the different celebrations and commemorations, locally and in other places around the world (significance, perspectives, empathy).


Inquiry Questions


Who lived here first and how do we know?

How has our community changed? What features have been lost and what features have been retained?

What is the nature of the contribution made by different groups and individuals in the community?

How and why do people choose to remember significant events of the past?

How the community has changed and remained the same over time and the role that people of diverse backgrounds have played in the development and character of the local community

  • exploring photographs, newspapers, oral histories, diaries and letters to investigate how an aspect of life in the local community (for example, transport, entertainment, the natural and built environment, technology) has changed over time (for example, from the time of European settlement to the present day)
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  • comparing photographs from the past and present of a specific location to identify the change or continuity (similarities and differences over time) associated with people, events/developments, places or ecosystems

     

  • identifying individuals and groups from the past of diverse backgrounds (for example, gender, culture, ability, age, socioeconomic circumstance) who have contributed to the community’s development (for example, economic, social, cultural, civic or environmental contributions) and character (for example, culturally diverse, multi-faith, prosperous, helpful)

     

  • exploring how the contributions of individuals, groups and organisations are recognised (for example, parades, Award days, monuments)

Days and weeks celebrated or commemorated in the UK (including St Georges Day, Remembrance Day - D-Day ) and the importance of symbols and emblems

  • identifying and discussing the historical origins of an important British celebration or commemoration

     

  • generating a list of local, state and national symbols and emblems (for example, club emblems, school logos, flags, floral emblems, the Commonwealth Coat of Arms) and discussing their origins, use and significance

     

  • examining the symbolism of flags (for example, the English, Scotish and Irish flags) and recognising special occasions when they are flown and the roles, rights and responsibilities the community has when observing protocols around flag flying

     

  • recognising the significance of other days or weeks - internationally 

Celebrations and commemorations in places around the world (for example, Chinese New Year in countries of the Asia region, Bastille Day in France, Independence Day in the USA), including those that are observed in Britain (for example, Christmas Day, Diwali, Easter, Hanukkah, the Moon Festival and Ramadan)

  • comparing the significance of national days in different countries, looking at why they developed and elements they have in common

     

  • exploring through secondary sources significant events of cultures or countries around the world, including national days, and discussing whether they are celebrations or commemorations

     

  • investigating the origins and significance of some international celebrations or commemorations (for example, the International Day of Peace)

     

  • investigating the origins and significance of celebrations important to particular cultural groups in our community (Axminster/Devon) and in other places of the world

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop Pupils ’ understanding of place, space, environment and interconnection. Pupils  develop an understanding of the similarities and differences between places within and outside Britain through a study of their environmental and human characteristics (place). They examine climate (environment) and the types of settlements (space) in the UK, and our neighbouring countries (place). Pupils  come to understand how people feel about and care for places (place, environment, interconnection). Pupils ’ mental maps further develop through learning about the representation of the UK and the location of our neighbouring countries (place).


Inquiry Questions


What are the main natural and human features of the UK?

How and why are places similar and different?

What would it be like to live in a neighbouring country?

The representation of the UK’s as regions and counties; and major places in the UK, both natural and human

  • sing geographical tools (for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to locate and name significant places such as the counites, major cities and regional centres in the UK
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  • identifying and describing the major natural features of the UK (for example, rivers and describing them with annotations on a map

     

     

The location of the UK’s neighbouring countries and the diverse characteristics of their places

  • using a globe to locate the European countries relevant to Pupils , labelling them on a map, and identifying the direction of each country from the UK

     

  • describing the similarities and differences between their local place and places in neighbouring countries in their natural and human characteristics

The main climate types of the world and the similarities and differences between the climates of different places

  • examining how weather contributes to a climate type

     

  • identifying the hot, temperate and polar zones of the world and the difference between climate and weather

     

  • identifying and locating examples of the main climatic types in the UK and the world (for example, equatorial, tropical arid, semi-arid, temperate and Mediterranean)

     

  • investigating and comparing what it would be like to live in a place with a different climate to their own place

The similarities and differences between places in terms of their type of settlement, demographic characteristics and the lives of the people who live there, and people’s perceptions of these places

  • exploring people’s feelings for place and the factors that influence people’s attachment to place, through reading and viewing poems, songs, paintings and stories

     

  • discussing why it is important to protect places that have special significance for people (for example, a wetland, a sacred site, a national park or a World Heritage site)

     

  • exploring different types of settlement, and classifying them into hierarchical categories (for example, isolated dwellings, outstations, villages, towns, regional centres and large cities)

     

  • investigating the diversity of people who live in their place (for example, surveying the school community about age, birthplace and ancestry) and comparing them with a school in another place in the UK or neighbouring country

  • examining the similarities and differences between their daily lives and those of people in another place in the UK or neighbouring country, and inferring what it would be like to live in these places


     

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop understanding about democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Drawing on familiar contexts and personal experiences of fair play, different points of view, rules and consequences, and decision-making, Pupils  begin to develop an understanding of democracy as rule by the people (democracy, laws and citizens). Pupils explore how individuals, including themselves, participate in and contribute to their community (citizenship, diversity and identity).


Inquiry Questions


How are decisions made democratically?

Why do we make rules?

How can I participate in my community?

The importance of making decisions democratically

  • making a decision as a class by allowing everyone to have a say and a vote

     

  • building empathy by reflecting on how it feels to be included or excluded from making decisions and identifying situations when it is fair for decisions to be made without taking a majority vote (for example, by teachers or parents)

     

  • identifying places and situations in communities where decisions are made democratically

Who makes rules, why rules are important and the consequences of rules not being followed

  • developing and justifying a set of fair rules and consequences for the class

     

  • identifying familiar rules, how rules protect the rights of others, what their responsibilities are to others, and the consequences when rules are not followed

     

  • considering why rules differ across contexts (for example, a library, the playground, in class, at home, in games and in cultural groups)

     

  • discussing situations where it is not fair to have one rule that treats everyone the same, if some people (for example, Pupils  with a disability) have different needs or would be unable to follow the rules

     

  • exploring cultural norms behind some rule-making (for example, removing shoes before entering places of cultural significance)

  • identifying who has the authority to make rules (for example, at school or in a sporting club)

Why people participate within communities and how Pupils  can actively participate and contribute

  • identifying groups in the local community or through a virtual community and exploring their purpose

     

  • exploring how they could participate in a school or community project (for example, raising money for a relevant aid project such as sponsorship of a sports team; working to protect a bird habitat)

     

  • investigating an individual’s contribution and why it was recognised (for example, an individual who was awarded an MBE or OBE)

     

  • exploring the motivations of people who have contributed to communities (for example, local community volunteers, leaders and Elders)

By the end of Year 3, Pupils  identify individuals, events and aspects of the past that have significance in the present. They identify and describe aspects of their community that have changed and remained the same over time. They describe the diverse characteristics of different places at the local scale and identify and describe similarities and differences between the characteristics of these places. They identify connections between people and the characteristics of places. Pupils  explain the role of rules in their community and the importance of making decisions democratically. They identify the importance of different celebrations and commemorations for different groups. They explain how and why people participate in and contribute to their communities.


Pupils  pose questions and locate and collect information from sources, including observations, to answer these questions. They examine information to identify a point of view and interpret data to identify and describe simple distributions. They draw simple conclusions and share their views on an issue. They sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order. They record and represent data in different formats, including labelled maps using basic cartographic conventions. They reflect on their learning to suggest individual action in response to an issue or challenge. Pupils  communicate their ideas, findings and conclusions in oral, visual and written forms using simple discipline-specific terms.

History

By the end of Year 3, Pupils  identify individuals, events and aspects of the past that have significance in the present. They identify and describe aspects of their community that have changed and remained the same over time. They identify the importance of different celebrations and commemorations for different groups.


Pupils  sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order. They pose questions about the past and locate and collect information from sources (written, physical, visual, oral) to answer these questions. They analyse information to identify a point of view. Pupils  develop texts, including narrative accounts, using terms denoting time.

Geography 

By the end of Year 3, Pupils  describe the location of the counties of Britain.. They describe the characteristics of different places at local scales and identify and describe similarities and differences between the characteristics of these places. They identify connections between people and the characteristics of places and recognise that people have different perceptions of places.


Pupils  pose geographical questions and locate and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They record and represent data in tables and simple graphs and the location of places and their characteristics on labelled maps that use the cartographic conventions of legend, title and north point. They describe the location of places and their features using simple grid references and cardinal compass points. Pupils  interpret geographical data to identify and describe distributions and draw conclusions. They present findings using simple geographical terminology in a range of texts. They reflect on their learning to suggest individual action in response to a geographical challenge.

civic and democracy 


By the end of Year 3, Pupils  explain the role of rules in their community and the importance of making decisions democratically. They describe how people participate in their community as active citizens.


Pupils  pose simple questions about the society in which they live. They collect information from sources to answer these questions. They examine information to identify a point of view and draw simple conclusions. Pupils  share their views on an issue and describe how they participate in a group. They present their ideas and conclusions in oral, visual and written forms using civics and citizenship terms.
















Year 4 - Intent How people, places and environments interact, past and present



The Year 4 curriculum focuses on interactions between people, places and environments over time and space and the effects of these interactions. Pupils  gain opportunities to expand their world knowledge and learn about the significance of environments, examining how people’s need and want of resources over time has affected peoples, societies and environments. Specifically, Pupils  study European exploration and colonisation in Britain and elsewhere up to the early 1800s and life for Indigenous Britain’s pre- and post-contact. They examine the concept of sustainability, and its application to resource use and waste management, past and present, by different groups. The curriculum introduces the role of local government, laws and rules, and group belonging and how they meet people’s needs. Themes of law and citizenship extend into their studies of diverse groups, the colonisation of Britain and other places, and how environmental sustainability is enacted.


The content provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.


The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from three sub-strands: history, geography and civics and citizenship. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.


Inquiry Questions


A framework for developing Pupils ’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.


How have laws affected the lives of people, past and present?

What were the short- and long-term effects of European settlement on the local environment and Indigenous land and water management practices?

What is the significance of the environment and what are different views on how it can be used and sustained, past and present?

Inquiry and skills 

Questioning 

Pose questions to investigate people, events, places and issues

  • asking questions before, during and after an investigation using tools such as a KWL chart (what they know, what they want to know and what they have learned) and five W’s + H (who, what, when, where, how and why)
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  • developing ‘How do we know?’ questions for evidence, ‘What could be done?’ questions about alternatives, and ‘Is that right or fair?’ questions about decisions past and present

     

  • generating a range of questions (for example, evaluation questions, reflecting questions) about contemporary issues reported in the media

     

  • discussing how an investigation about the past (for example, a shipwreck explored through a museum display, video or interactive website) is guided by questions at different stages, including ‘Why is that important now?’

Researching

Locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations

  • identifying the types of sources suited to historical, geographical, civic and cultural inquiry and discussing why suitable sources might be different

     

  • identifying sources for a historical study, such as sites, paintings (or their representations), maps, written records/accounts, database information, traditional ballads and stories

     

  • brainstorming ways that information might be collected for an inquiry (for example, surveys, interviews, tallying) and choosing, with teacher guidance, the most effective sources of data (for example, the internet, thematic maps, photographs, satellite imagery, field data collection)

     

  • using Google Earth or similar applications to collect geographical information (for example, the extent of vegetation in an area, or to explore settlement along a major river valley in Africa or South America, from its source to the sea)

     

  • exploring stories about the groups people belong to, for example, about cultural groups , from interest and community groups (such as recreational and volunteering organisations) and from gender or religious groups

     

  • acquiring geographical information about environments and resources from a range of sources, such as a knowledgeable community members or from schools in contrasting parts of the UK and/or other countries in the Northern Hemisphere

Record, sort and represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in different formats, including simple graphs, tables and maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions

  • using graphic organisers to sort and record information (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, Venn diagrams, Y-charts, network diagrams) or to show simple relationships (for example, a food web in mangrove or Antarctic waters)
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  • constructing maps, graphs or tables to display data and information (for example, changes in the distribution of different types of vegetation; the loss of native species; the movement of peoples over time; the population of places over time; resource distribution in places that have been colonised; social, cultural and religious groups in British society) using digital applications as appropriate

     

  • recording and sorting collected information using tally sheets, murals, surveys, graphs and tables, databases or spreadsheets

     

  • showing historical and geographic information on maps (for example, collaboratively creating a large class map of world exploration by projecting a world map on a mural, and completing it with relevant geographical and historical details including compass points, sea routes, legends, dates, pictorial details, annotations and captions)

     

  • annotating maps using the appropriate cartographic conventions including map symbols, scale and north point to show places and their features, in the UK, and in selected countries of Europe. 

Sequence information about people’s lives and events

  • creating a timeline by accurately placing information about key events or people in chronological order and explaining the sequence

     

  • using graphic organisers to show the sequential stages of a process (for example, a flowchart that shows the stages of local government decision-making; a consequence wheel that shows causes and effects; seasonal charts such as an representation describing environmental evidence)

     

  • recounting and sequencing events associated with a particular history 

Analysing

Examine information to identify different points of view and distinguish facts from opinions

  • exploring different points of view about a familiar event or issue (for example, a school issue, an environmental issue)

     

  • exploring different stories associated with a past event to discover the experiences, thoughts or feelings of the people at that time 

     

  • identifying differing viewpoints and considering their related ethical implications when discussing the past and present (for example, personal preference versus respecting the law such as personal freedom versus following the legal requirement to wear a bike helmet; different views over time about people’s character such as convicts who stole food were sinful)

     

  • exploring different viewpoints about the sustainable use of a place 

     

  • sharing aspects of their cultural identity and considering how it might be similar and different to the cultural identity of others

     

  • identifying stereotypes presented in texts and pictures, such as generalisations about gender roles, and talking about who is advantaged by stereotypes and who is disadvantaged

Interpret data and information displayed in different formats, to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns

  • decoding the meaning of symbols and emblems associated with British history, geography and civic life and applying an understanding of conventions, vocabulary and symbols when interpreting large-scale maps
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  • comparing information in sources to identify evidence of change 

     

  • interpreting the data presented in picture, line, bar or column graphs to idenitify simple trends or distributions (for example, explaining survey results about types of waste produced in the school or how people in the community participate)

     

  • interpreting thematic maps and using Google Earth or similar applications to describe the characteristics of a continent or region or to identify the distribution of a particular characteristic 

     

  • comparing environments in places of similar climate and vegetation that are located on different continents (for example, sandy, icy and stony deserts of Britain, Africa, Antarctica and South America)

Evaluating and reflecting

Draw simple conclusions based on analysis of information and data

  • describing risks in past times (for example, for those involved in sea travel, exploration and colonisation) and making inferences about similar risks today (for example, the risks of space and deep sea exploration, colonising other planets, adapting to life in a new environment)

     

  • explaining how seeking resources is connected to trade, world exploration, colonisation and environmental change

     

  • finding connections, in order to draw conclusions, from an analysis of sources (for example, relationships between plants and animals in an ecosystem; languages of countries and the nations which colonised them; shipwreck locations and natural features; local government services and how people benefit)

     

  • concluding from an analysis of historical records how laws, and the consequences of not following them, have changed over time (for example, contrasting penalties applied in eighteenth-century Britain and those applied in modern Britain)

     

  • using new knowledge to make an argument on a topic relevant to them and their community (for example, whether they agree with a school rule, a proposed change in the community, what the local government can do about an issue)

     

  • reflecting on how people of the past are represented in fiction and other sources, and critically examining stereotypes in their representations 

Interact with others with respect to share points of view

  • participating in role-plays and simple debates which allow for equal presentation of viewpoints

     

  • exploring and sharing, through a facilitated role-play, the experiences and/or feelings of different people involved in a past event or the different views about a current event (for example, the views of farmers, activists and government decision-makers about a road going through an endangered habitat)

     

  • participating in cooperative strategies that enable decision-making about roles and responsibilities (for example, using de Bonos’ hats)

Reflect on learning to propose actions in response to an issue or challenge and consider possible effects of proposed actions

  • reflecting on learning with the assistance of tools such as a KWL chart (what they know, what they want to know and what they have learned) when evaluating responses to an issue

     

  • forecasting a probable future and a preferred future relating to an environmental, local government or cultural issue (for example, developing a futures scenario of what oceans will be like if humans continue to allow waste plastic to enter waterways, and a preferred scenario of what oceans would be like if plastics were to be replaced by degradable materials)

     

  • reflecting on personal behaviours and identifying attitudes that may affect aspects of the environment at a local or global level (for example, pouring paints down the sink; using products sourced from cleared rainforests) and proposing awareness-raising strategies to reduce impacts on the environment

     

  • proposing possible actions that could be taken to address an issue (for example, improving the management of waste in the school; choosing products not made from endangered species such as elephants) and identifying resources needed to support the actions and likely outcomes (for example, composting lunch waste and using it on the school garden; making socially responsible decisions)

     

Communicating

Present ideas, findings and conclusions in texts and modes that incorporate digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms

  • composing, in a range of different text types, information to communicate findings and conclusions (for example, information presented as imaginative recounts, biographies, journals, reports)

     

  • selecting appropriate representations to suit and enhance their communication, including graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes

     

  • describing the relative location of different features in a place by distance and compass direction (for example, the distance from their home to the local waste management site, the route of a navigator)

    

  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms when speaking, writing and illustrating, for example, using historical terms (such as ‘exploration’, ‘navigation’, ‘trade’, penal’, ‘transportation’, ‘contact’, ‘frontier conflict’, 'colonisation’), using geographical terms (such as ‘continents’, ‘countries’, ‘natural resources’, 'vegetation’, ‘environments’, ‘ecosystems’, ‘sustainability’, ‘consumption’, ‘waste’ and ‘management’) and using civic terms (such as ‘local government’, ‘decision-making’, ‘services’, ‘roles’, ‘responsibilities’, ‘rules’, ‘laws’ and ‘belonging’)

Knowledge and understanding 

History

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The Year 4 curriculum introduces world history and the movement of peoples. Pupils  study the diversity of local people , their connection to place (sources, perspectives, significance) and their contact with other societies (change and continuity, perspectives, empathy). Through a study of navigation, exploration and/or trade (sources), Pupils  come to learn about contact between societies (continuity and change, cause and effect) and its effects on people and their environments (perspectives, empathy).


Inquiry Questions

     

Why did the great journeys of exploration occur?

What was life like for early settlers?

Why did the people settle in Devon?

The journey(s) of AT LEAST ONE world navigator, explorer or trader up to the late eighteenth century, including their contacts with other societies and any impacts

  • identifying key individuals and groups who established contacts with Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania during the European age of discovery

     

  • investigating what motivated countries to explore and colonise

     

  • examining the journey of one or more explorers (for example, Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Ferdinand Magellan), using navigation maps to reconstruct their journeys

     

  • examining the impact of European exploration or colonisation on ONE society

     

  • investigating networks of exchange and what was exchanged between different groups of people (for example, ideas, spices, food, slaves)

     

  • recognising that people from many continents have explored parts of the world (for example, Zheng He, Ibn Battuta)

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop Pupils ’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection and sustainability. The content focuses on understandings about sustainability – the ongoing capacity of the environment to sustain human life and wellbeing. Pupils  explore the features and functions of environments that support humans and other living things (environment, interconnection). They examine the use and management of resources and waste, and views about how to achieve sustainability (environment, interconnection, sustainability), 

Inquiry Questions


How does the environment support the lives of people and other living things?

How do different views about the environment influence approaches to sustainability?

How can people use environments more sustainably?

The importance of environments, including natural vegetation, to animals and people

  • identifying the main types of vegetation, including forest, savannah, grassland, woodland and desert, and explaining the relationship between climate and natural vegetation
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  • exploring how vegetation has an important role in sustaining the environment by producing oxygen, protecting food-producing land from erosion, retaining rainfall, providing habitat for animals, sheltering crops and livestock, providing shade for people, cooling urban places, producing medicines, wood and fibre, and making places appear more attractive

     

  • explaining how people’s connections with their environment can also be aesthetic, emotional and spiritual

     

  • explaining the significance of vegetation endemic in the local area to survival of people (for example, as a source of food, shelter, medicine, tools and weapons)

     

  • exploring strategies to protect particular environments that provide the habitats for animals (for example, planting bird-attracting vegetation)

The use and management of natural resources and waste, and the different views on how to do this sustainably

  • identifying some of the resources produced by the environment and where they come from (for example, water, food and raw materials such as fibres, timber and metals that make the things they use)

     

  • exploring how some natural resources are used and managed in sustainable and non-sustainable ways

     

  • identifying renewable and non-renewable resources

     

  • investigating where a particular renewable natural resource comes from, how it is used and sustainable management strategies (for example, recycling paper or planting more trees)

     

  • exploring the work of groups and organisations which manage natural resources and/or waste

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Pupils ’ understanding of democratic decision-making is further developed through a study of the role of their local government and the services it provides to their community (government and democracy). They examine how rules and laws affect them and the importance of laws in society (laws and citizens) and they explore cultural diversity in their community; in particular, how belonging to different groups can shape personal identity (diversity and identity).


Inquiry Questions


How can local government contribute to community life?

What is the difference between rules and laws and why are they important?

How has my identity been shaped by the groups to which I belong?

The role of local government and the decisions it makes on behalf of the community

  • examining how local government is chosen and by whom

     

  • exploring what local government does, including the services it provides (for example, environment and waste, libraries, health, parks, cultural events, pools and sport, arts and pet management)

     

  • describing how local government services impact on the lives of Pupils 

The differences between ‘rules’ and ‘laws’, why laws are important and how they affect the lives of people, i

  • distinguishing between ‘laws’ (for example, speeding in school zones) and ‘rules’ (for example, sun safety in the school)

     

  • exploring the purpose of laws and recognising that laws apply to everyone in society

     

  • discussing examples of laws and why they are important to Pupils ’ lives

The different cultural, religious and/or social groups to which they and others in the community belong

  • identifying diversity through the different social, cultural and religious groups Pupils  belong to

     

  • listing and comparing the different beliefs, traditions and symbols used by groups

     

  • describe real, virtual or vicarious experiences with other cultures and groups

By the end of Year 4, Pupils  recognise the significance of events in bringing about change and the importance of the environment. They explain how and why life changed in the past and identify aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group in the past. They describe and compare the diverse characteristics of different places at local to national scales. Pupils  identify the interconnections between components of the environment and between people and the environment. They identify structures that support their local community and recognise the importance of laws in society. They describe factors that shape a person’s identity and sense of belonging. They identify different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.


Pupils  develop questions to investigate. They locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations to answer these questions. When examining information, they distinguish between facts and opinions and detect points of view. They interpret data and information to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns and draw conclusions. They share their points of view, respecting the views of others. Pupils  sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order with reference to key dates. They sort, record and represent data in different formats, including large-scale maps using basic cartographic conventions. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to an issue or challenge, and identify the possible effects of their proposed action. Pupils present ideas, findings and conclusions using discipline-specific terms in a range of communication forms



History - By the end of Year 4, Pupils  recognise the significance of events in bringing about change. They explain how and why life changed in the past and identify aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group in the past.


Pupils  sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order with reference to key dates. They develop questions about the past and locate, collect and sort information from different sources to answer these questions. They analyse sources to detect points of view. Pupils  develop and present texts, including narrative recounts, using historical terms.



Geography - By the end of Year 4, Pupils  recognise the significance of events in bringing about change and the importance of the environment. They explain how and why life changed in the past and identify aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group in the past. They describe and compare the diverse characteristics of different places at local to national scales. Pupils  identify the interconnections between components of the environment and between people and the environment. They identify structures that support their local community and recognise the importance of laws in society. They describe factors that shape a person’s identity and sense of belonging. They identify different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.


Pupils  develop questions to investigate. They locate and collect information and data from different sources, including observations to answer these questions. When examining information, they distinguish between facts and opinions and detect points of view. They interpret data and information to identify and describe distributions and simple patterns and draw conclusions. They share their points of view, respecting the views of others. Pupils  sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order with reference to key dates. They sort, record and represent data in different formats, including large-scale maps using basic cartographic conventions. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to an issue or challenge, and identify the possible effects of their proposed action. Pupils present ideas, findings and conclusions using discipline-specific terms in a range of communication forms.


Civics and democracy - By the end of Year 4, Pupils  identify structures and decisions that support their local community and recognise the importance of laws in society. They describe factors that shape a person’s identity and sense of belonging.


Pupils  develop questions about the society in which they live and locate and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They examine information to distinguish between facts and opinions, identify points of view and to draw conclusions. They share their points of view, respecting the views of others, and identify the groups they belong to. Pupils  present ideas and conclusions using discipline-specific terms in a range of communication forms.










     

Year 5 Intent British communities – their past, present and possible futures




The Year 5 curriculum focuses on colonial Britain in the 1800s and the social, economic, political and environmental causes and effects of British development, and on the relationship between humans and their environment. Pupils ’ geographical knowledge of Britain and the the world is expanded as they explore the continents of Europe and North America, and study British colonisation, migration and democracy in the 1800s. Pupils  investigate how the characteristics of environments are influenced by humans in different times and places, as they seek resources, settle in new places and manage the spaces within them. They also investigate how environments influence the characteristics of places where humans live and human activity in those places. Pupils explore how communities, past and present, have worked together based on shared beliefs and values. The curriculum introduces studies about Britain’s democratic values, its electoral system and law enforcement. In studying human desire and need for resources, Pupils  make connections to economics and business concepts around decisions and choices, gaining opportunities to consider their own and others’ financial, economic, environmental and social responsibilities and decision-making, past, present and future.


The content provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.


The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.


Inquiry Questions


A framework for developing Pupils ’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.


How have individuals and groups in the past and present contributed to the development of Britain?

What is the relationship between environments and my roles as a consumer and citizen?

How have people enacted their values and perceptions about their community, other people and places, past and present?

Inquiry and skills 

Questioning 

Develop appropriate questions to guide an inquiry about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges

  • asking questions before, during and after an investigation to frame and guide the stages of an inquiry

     

  • developing different types of questions for different purposes (for example, probing questions to seek details, open-ended questions to elicit more ideas, practical questions to guide the application of enterprising behaviours)

     

  • developing questions to guide the identification and location of useful sources for an investigation or project (for example, ‘Is this source useful?’, ‘Who can help us do this project?’, ‘What rules/protocols must we follow when we do this inquiry/project?’, ‘What resources do we need to conduct this project?’)

Researching

Locate and collect relevant information and data from primary sources and secondary sources

  • finding information about the past in primary sources (for example, maps, stories, songs, music, dance, diaries, official documents, artworks, artefacts, remains of past industry, newspapers of the day, advertisements, rule lists, interview transcripts)

     

  • finding geographical information in primary sources (such as fieldwork and photographs) and secondary sources (such as maps, plans and reports in digital and non-digital form)

     

  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to collect information (for example, to identify the environmental characteristics of the major countries of Europe and North America)

     

  • conducting surveys to gather primary data and summarising the key points or particular points of view relating to an issue (for example, interviewing recipients of awards such as MBE  medals; surveying the views of conflicting parties in a planning or environmental dispute)

     

  • finding data and information that supports decision-making processes when investigating an economics or business issue including online, observation and print sources (for example, interviews, surveys, case studies)

     

  • finding out how to conduct ethical research with people and communities, including the, behaviours in sacred or significant sites, and considering sensitivities of people

Organise and represent data in a range of formats including tables, graphs and large- and small-scale maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions

  • categorising information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, Venn diagrams, scattergrams, decision-making matrixes and bibliography templates)
  •      
  • constructing maps, tables and graphs using appropriate digital applications and conventions (such as border, source, scale, legend, title and north point) to display data and information (for example, information about the movement of peoples over time in the UK; the different climates of Europe and North America; population growth of British colonies; cultural and religious groups in Britain at different times; influences on consumer purchasing decisions)

     

  • deciding which recording methods and tools (for example, graphs, tables, field sketches, questionnaires, scattergrams, audio-recorders, video recorders, cameras, water or air quality testing kits, binoculars, clinometers, calculators) suit the data or information to be collected

     

  • mapping geographical data using spatial technologies (for example, the location of recent flooding in Britain , or information they have collected through fieldwork)

Sequence information about people’s lives, events, developments and phenomena using a variety of methods including timelines

  • compiling an annotated timeline to show the key stages of a development (for example, significant events in the development of their community, their region or county)

     

  • creating flowcharts that show the stages of a process (for example, steps in an electoral process such as a class vote or a local council election; the sequence of safety procedures that can be used to mitigate the effects of flooding, the sequence of actions in a recycling system)

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin and purpose

  • inferring the nature, purpose and origin of artefacts to determine if they have evidence to offer an investigation of a time, place or process

     

  • identifying stereotypes and over-generalisations relating to age, gender, ethnicity, ability, religion and/or politics presented in sources and media of the past (for example, a newspaper caricature of a colonial era Chinese goldfield worker) and in sources and media of the present (for example, social media opinions about a mining development)

     

  • identifying the purpose and usefulness of information gained from primary and secondary sources (for example, checking publication details)

     

  • analysing texts relating to a school, club or government election (for example, speeches, advertisements, campaign materials, symbols, how to vote cards, result records) to determine who created them and their purpose

Examine different viewpoints on actions, events, issues and phenomena in the past and present

  • analysing sources to identify and understand the different motives and experiences of individuals and groups involved in past or present events and issues (for example, the reasons people migrated to England  and their diverse experiences; the struggle for rights by emancipated convicts; the way migrants or refugees have been managed over time and their experiences.)

     

  • comparing sources of evidence to identify similarities and/or differences in accounts of the past.

     

  • analysing photographs to identify inferred messages 

     

  • exploring, through a facilitated role-play or a simulation game, the way different people experienced the same event or people’s differing perceptions of election speeches made by opposing candidates)

Interpret data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships

  • interpreting data presented in a line, bar, column or pie graph (for example, data about bushfires or floods, election results, common influences on the purchases of class members) to identify the likelihood of an outcome or the probability of an event reoccurring

     

  • analysing visual and written sources to infer relationships (for example, examining photographs to see how people responded to droughts in enterprising ways, technology and artefacts travelled across them; analysing a food web to reveal how plants, animals, water, air and people are connected)

     

  • making inferences using sources, such as graphs and thematic maps, that show distribution 

     

  • interpreting graphs and tables of data collected from a survey to infer relationships or trends (for example, common influences on purchasing decisions of class members; the increase in social activism for social and environmental causes)

     

  • interpreting and creating maps such as flow and choropleth maps, or plans for specific purposes (for example, a bushfire management plan)

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate evidence to draw conclusions

  • drawing conclusions about a community and/or the environment (for example, changing democratic values from past to present; patterns of human consumption and changes in environments)

     

  • analysing information to reveal trends and changes (for example, changes over time in who could vote; changing purchasing trends; the rise in the use of energy drawn from alternative sources; the increase in online activism for social and environmental causes)

     

  • exploring maps and sources showing language groups and Countries/Places, to explain the diversity of their cultures

     

  • exploring past or present representations of people that differ from those commonly conveyed (for example, missing voices of minority groups such as youth, the unemployed, non-citizens, women, children)

     

  • acknowledging ethical considerations of decisions they and others make or have made (for example, an election preference; reasons for purchasing an item; why laws are not followed by some people; the acceptance of children working in colonial times; stewardship of natural places)

     

  • explaining enterprising initiatives that address challenges (for example, colonial solutions to challenges of preserving food and accessing resources; sustainable use of materials for housing past and present)

     

  • forecasting probable futures for an issue (for example, how native fauna populations might change if introduced species such as the cane toad, carp, feral cats or rabbits continues to increase in population) and proposing preferred futures that relate to the issue

Work in groups to generate responses to issues and challenges

  • undertaking a project that responds to an identified challenge or issue with strategies to be used that will achieve desired outcomes (for example, bush fire readiness plan, a school fundraising activity, an ecological preservation project, a school-based opinion poll about a relevant issue)

     

  • using communication technologies to exchange information and to facilitate the development of a collaborative response

     

  • participating in a relevant democratic process (for example, in class votes, mock parliament, school decision-making processes such as student councils)

     

  • discussing the priorities and ethics evident in past decisions (for example, in clearing of native vegetation for farming, in stealing food to survive)

     

  • applying enterprising and collaborative behaviours in a group activity (for example, working with others to make decisions about the best way to compare prices of products)

Use criteria to make decisions and judgements and consider advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others

  • making judgements about how effectively challenges have been addressed in the past (for example, relative success of solutions to challenges during colonial settlement) or how effectively a current challenge is being addressed (for example, the solution to an environmental issue, or a strategy for economic development)

     

  • evaluating the possible options that people could take to resolve challenges (for example, improving water quality, ensuring fairness, managing excess waste, budgeting choices)

     

  • reflecting on choices in relation to personal criteria and expressing reasoning that influenced decision-making (for example, why they participate in a civic activity, what influenced their purchase of an item)

     

  • using agreed criteria as the basis for an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of choices (for example, for determining which actions are most likely to be effective to restore a damaged environment)

     

  • applying economics and business criteria to everyday problems to identify a response to the issue

Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, and predict the probable effects

  • reflect on primary and secondary sources used and how this may have influenced the validity of the conclusions of the inquiry (for example, sample size of survey, the date a secondary source was created and the views that prevailed at the time)

     

  • posing self-reflection questions to influence personal and collective action (for example, ‘What are the effects of my purchasing decisions?’, ‘Are needs and wants the same for everyone?’, ‘Why can’t all needs and wants be satisfied?’, ‘How can I contribute to a sustainable environment?’)

     

  • identifying the effects of decisions about economics and business and/or civics and citizenship issues

     

  • assessing possible options as actions that people could take to respond to a local issue they have investigated (for example, the redevelopment of a disused quarry in the local area)

     

  • analysing successful solutions to problems and considering if problem-solving approaches can be applied to challenges relevant to their personal or school context

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms and conventions

  • selecting appropriate text types to convey findings, conclusions and understandings (for example, imaginative journals, narrative recounts, reports and arguments)

     

  • describing the relative location of places and their features in Britain and in selected countries of North America and Europe

     

  • selecting and applying appropriate media and strategies to suit their communication, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes

     

  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms (for example, historical terms such as ‘colonial’, ‘the gold era’, ‘migration’, ‘penal’; geographic terms such as ‘characteristics’, ‘environmental’, ‘human’, ‘ecosystems’, ‘sustainable’, ‘settlement’, ‘management‘; civics terms such as ‘electoral process’, ‘democracy’, ‘legal system’, ‘shared beliefs’; and economic terms such as ‘scarcity’, ‘choices’, ‘resources’, ‘businesses’, ‘consumers’, ‘needs and wants’, ‘goods and services’)

     

History

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The curriculum in this year provides a study of colonial Britain in the 1800s. Pupils  learn about the reasons for the founding of British colonies in Britain and the impact of a development or event on one Britain colony (continuity and change, cause and effect). They examine what life was like for different groups of people in the colonial period (sources), and explore the reasons for their actions (cause and effect, perspectives, empathy). They examine early migration, settlement patterns, people and their contributions, significant events, and political and economic developments (sources, continuity and change, significance, empathy). Pupils  are also introduced to the concept of sources as they analyse sources to compare information and points of view in the past and present (sources, perspectives).


Inquiry Questions


What do we know about the lives of people in Britain's past and how do we know?

How did a Great Britain develop over time and why?

What were the significant events and who were the significant people that shaped Great Britain?

Reasons (economic, political and social) for the change in multiculturalism in the UK since 1900

  • Investigate the changes in society since 1900, for example Windrush, vote for women, Britain enters EEC, 9/11 

The impact of a significant development or event on the UK 

  • investigating an event or development and explaining its economic, social and political impact on the UK (for example, the development of democracy; the impact of internal exploration and the advent of rail on the expansion of farming)

  • creating ‘what if’ scenarios by constructing different outcomes for a key event (for example, ‘What if we had not joined the EEC in 1973?)



  • identifying the reasons why people migrated to the UK in the 1900s (for example, as workers)

  • investigating the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within the UK (for example, Polish in London India  in Birmingham , Pakistani in Bradford)

  • connecting (where appropriate) stories of migration to students’ own family histories

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop Pupils ’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection, change and sustainability. The curriculum focuses on the factors that shape the characteristics of places. They explore how climate and landforms influence the human characteristics of places, and how human actions influence the environmental characteristics of places (change, environment, place, interconnection). Pupils  examine the way spaces within places are organised and managed (space, place), and how people work to prevent, mitigate and prepare for natural hazards (environment, place). Pupils ’ mental map of the world expands to Europe and North America and their main countries and characteristics (space, place, environment).


Inquiry Questions


How do people and environments influence one another?

How do people influence the human characteristics of places and the management of spaces within them?

How can the impact of floods on people and places be reduced?

The influence of people on the environmental characteristics of places in Europe and North America and the location of their major countries in relation to the UK

  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe, wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the relative location of the major countries of Europe and North America and their environmental characteristics

     

  • using a printed or electronic atlas to identify the main characteristics of continents of Europe and North America

     

  • researching the changes made by people to a particular environment in a country in Europe and a country in North America

     

The environmental and human influences on the location and characteristics of a place and the management of spaces within them

  • comparing how people have responded to climatic conditions in similar and different places and explaining why most Britainns live close to the coast compared to inland UK

     

  • investigating the influence of landforms (for example, river valleys such as the Murray-Darling, Yellow (Huang He), Yangtze, Amazon, Mekong or Ganges), on the development of settlements that are involved in food and fibre production

     

  • examining the effects of landforms (for example, valleys, hills, natural harbours and rivers) on the location and characteristics of their place and other places they know

     

  • exploring the extent of change in the local environment over time and the impact of change on ecosystems

     

  • exploring how a unique environment is used and managed (for example, settlement and human use of Antarctica and the practices and laws that aim to manage human impact)

     

  • examining how the use of the space within their local place is organised through zoning

     

  • investigating a current local planning issue (for example, redevelopment of a site, protection of a unique species), exploring why people have different views on the issue, and developing a class response to it

The impact of floods on environments and communities, and how people can respond

  • mapping and explaining the location, frequency and severity of flooding in the UK

     

  • explaining the impacts of floods on the UK vegetation and the significance of fire damage on communities

     

  • researching how the application of principles of prevention, mitigation and preparedness minimises the harmful effects of flooding

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Pupils  are introduced to the key values of Britain’s liberal democratic system of government, such as freedom, equality, fairness and justice (government and democracy). Pupils  begin to understand representative democracy by examining the features of the voting processes in Britain (government and democracy). Pupils expand on their knowledge of the law by studying the role of laws and law enforcement (laws and citizens). Pupils  investigate how diverse groups cooperate and participate in our community (citizenship, diversity and identity).


Inquiry Questions


What is democracy in Britain and why is voting in a democracy important?

Why do we have laws and regulations?

How and why do people participate in groups to achieve shared goals?

The key values that underpin Britain’s democracy

  • discussing the meaning of democracy
  •      
  • discussing the meaning and importance of the key values of British democracy (for example, freedom of election and being elected; freedom of assembly and political participation; freedom of speech, expression and religious belief; rule of law; other basic human rights)

     

  • considering how Pupils  apply democratic values in familiar contexts

The key features of the electoral process in the UK

  • exploring the secret ballot and compulsory voting as key features of Britain's democracy

     

  • recognising the role of the British Electoral Commission in administering elections that are open, free and fair

     

  • clarifying who has the right to vote and stand for election in the UK

Why regulations and laws are enforced and the personnel involved

  • categorising the different types of laws and regulations in their community and who enforces them (road laws – police; health laws – public health department; pollution laws – environmental protection officer)

     

  • identifying and researching the role of different people associated with law enforcement (for example, quarantine and customs officials, police) and the legal system (for example, judges and lawyers)

How people with shared beliefs and values work together to achieve a civic goal

  • discussing how and why people volunteer for groups in their community (for example, rural fire services, emergency services groups and youth groups)

     

  • using social media to share and discuss ideas about how people can work together as local, regional and global citizens(for example, as communities for a local environmental issue or project)

     

  • discussing ways people resolve differences (for example, through negotiation and Reconciliation)

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing an understanding of why decisions need to be made when allocating resources (resource allocation) for society’s needs and wants, and the various factors that may influence them when making decisions (making choices). Methods that help with these decisions, particularly for consumer and financial decisions, are considered (consumer and financial literacy).


Inquiry Questions


Why do I have to make choices as a consumer?

What influences the decisions I make?

What can I do to make informed decisions?

he difference between needs and wants and why choices need to be made about how limited resources are used

  • debating whether one person’s need is another person’s need or want

     

  • explaining the concept of scarcity (that is, needs and unlimited wants compared to limited resources) and why individuals cannot have all the items they want and therefore must make a choice

     

  • explaining reasons for differences in needs and wants for different groups

Types of resources (natural, human, capital) and the ways societies use them to satisfy the needs and wants of present and future generations

  • categorising resources as natural (water, coal, wheat), human (workers, business owners, designing, making, thinking) and capital (tools, machines, technologies)

     

  • brainstorming resources that a local community might use

     

  • identifying and categorising the factors of production used in the production of goods and services that satisfy the needs and wants of a local community

     

  • listing the needs and wants of a local community and exploring the ways resources are currently used to meet these needs and wants and how resources might be used more sustainably to meet these needs and wants into the future

Influences on consumer choices and methods that can be used to help make informed personal consumer and financial choices

  • identifying goods they have purchased and categorising and explaining factors that influence consumer purchasing decisions (for example, personal preferences, social trends, economic factors such as budgets and the amount of money available to spend; psychological factors such as advertising and peer pressure; cultural, environmental, legal and ethical factors)

     

  • comparing the influence of a variety of selling and advertising strategies used by businesses on consumer choices (for example, the influence of television and internet advertising compared to email promotions)

     

  • recognising that financial transactions can include the use of notes, coins, credit and debit cards, and barter items; explaining the advantages and disadvantages of the different transaction types; and considering how these may influence the way people purchase items

     

  • exploring the strategies that can be used when making consumer and financial decisions (for example, finding more information, comparing prices, keeping a record of money spent, saving for the future)

By the end of Year 5, Pupils  describe the significance of people and events/developments in bringing about change. They identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities and describe aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of different people in the past. Pupils  explain the characteristics of places in different locations at local to national scales. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the human and environmental characteristics of places, and between components of environments. They identify the effects of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. Pupils  identify the importance of values and processes to Britain’s democracy and describe the roles of different people in Britain’s legal system. They recognise that choices need to be made when allocating resources. They describe factors that influence their choices as consumers and identify strategies that can be used to inform these choices. They describe different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.

Pupils  develop questions for an investigation. They locate and collect data and information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and to identify different viewpoints. They interpret data to identify and describe distributions, simple patterns and trends, and to infer relationships, and suggest conclusions based on evidence. Pupils  sequence information about events, the lives of individuals and selected phenomena in chronological order using timelines. They sort, record and represent data in different formats, including large-scale and small-scale maps, using basic conventions. They work with others to generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and reflect on their learning to independently propose action, describing the possible effects of their proposed action. They present their ideas, findings and conclusions in a range of communication forms using discipline-specific terms and appropriate conventions.

History 

By the end of Year 5, Pupils  describe the significance of people and events/developments in bringing about change. They identify the causes and effects of change on particular communities and describe aspects of the past that have remained the same. They describe the experiences of different people in the past.

Pupils  sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order using timelines. When researching, Pupils  develop questions for a historical inquiry. They identify a range of sources and locate, collect and organise information related to this inquiry. They analyse sources to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different viewpoints. Pupils  develop, organise and present their texts, particularly narrative recounts and descriptions, using historical terms and concepts.


Geography 

By the end of Year 5, Pupils  describe the location of selected countries in relative terms. They explain the characteristics of places in different locations at local to national scales. They identify and describe the interconnections between people and the human and environmental characteristics of places, and between components of environments. They identify the effects of these interconnections on the characteristics of places and environments. They identify and describe different possible responses to a geographical challenge.

Pupils  develop appropriate geographical questions for an investigation. They locate, collect and organise data and information from a range of sources to answer inquiry questions. They represent data and the location of places and their characteristics in graphic forms, including large-scale and small-scale maps that use the cartographic conventions of border, scale, legend, title and north point. They describe the location of places and their characteristics using compass direction and distance. Pupils  interpret maps, geographical data and other information to identify and describe spatial distributions, simple patterns and trends, and suggest conclusions. They present findings and ideas using geographical terminology in a range of communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge and identify the possible effects of their proposed action



Civic

By the end of Year 5, Pupils  identify the importance of values and processes to Britain’s democracy and describe the roles of different people in Britain’s legal system. They identify various ways people can participate effectively in groups to achieve shared goals and describe different views on how to respond to a current issue or challenge.

Pupils  develop questions for an investigation about the society in which they live. They locate and collect information from different sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and identify different viewpoints. They interpret information to suggest conclusions based on evidence. Pupils  identify possible solutions to an issue as part of a plan for action and reflect on how they work together. They present their ideas, conclusions and viewpoints in a range of communication forms using civics and citizenship terms and concepts.


£ and business

By the end of Year 5, Pupils  distinguish between needs and wants and recognise that choices need to be made when allocating resources. They describe factors that influence their choices as consumers. Pupils  identify individual strategies that can be used to make informed consumer and financial choices.

Pupils  develop questions for an investigation about an economics or business issue or event. They locate and collect data and information from a range of sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their purpose and suggest conclusions based on evidence. They interpret, sort and represent data in different formats. They generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and reflect on their learning to propose action, describing the possible effects of their decision. Pupils  apply economics and business skills to everyday problems. They present their ideas, findings and conclusions in a range of communication forms using economics and business terms.









     

Year 6 - Intent - Britain in the past and present and its connections with a diverse world



The Year 6 curriculum focuses on the social, economic and political development of Britain as a nation, particularly after 1900, and Britain’s role within a diverse and interconnected world today. Pupils  explore the events and developments that shaped the UK as a democratic nation and stable economy, and the experiences of the diverse groups who have contributed to and are/were affected by these events and developments, past and present. Pupils  investigate the importance of rights and responsibilities and informed decision-making, at the personal level of consumption and civic participation, and at the national level through studies of economic, ecological and government processes and systems. In particular, Pupils  examine Europe’s natural, demographic and cultural diversity, with opportunities to understand their connections to European environments. These studies enable Pupils to understand how they are interconnected with diverse people and places across the globe.


The content provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop humanities and social sciences understanding through key concepts including significance; continuity and change; cause and effect; place and space; interconnections; roles, rights and responsibilities; and perspectives and action. These concepts may provide a focus for inquiries and be investigated across sub-strands or within a particular sub-strand context.


The content at this year level is organised into two strands: knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills. The knowledge and understanding strand draws from four sub-strands: history, geography, civics and citizenship and economics and business. These strands (knowledge and understanding, and inquiry and skills) are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, which may include integrating with content from the sub-strands and from other learning areas, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.


Inquiry Questions


A framework for developing Pupils ’ knowledge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions. The following inquiry questions allow for connections to be made across the sub-strands and may be used or adapted to suit local contexts: inquiry questions are also provided for each sub-strand that may enable connections within the humanities and social sciences learning area or across other learning areas.


How have key figures, events and values shaped British society, its system of government and citizenship?

How have experiences of democracy and citizenship differed between groups over time and place, including those from and in Asia?

How has Britain developed as a society with global connections, and what is my role as a global citizen?

Inquiry and skills 

Questioning

Develop appropriate questions to guide an inquiry about people, events, developments, places, systems and challenges

  • generating appropriate questions before, during and after an investigation to frame and guide the stages of the inquiry

     

  • developing different types of research questions for different purposes (for example, probing questions to seek details, open-ended questions to elicit more ideas, practical questions to guide the application of enterprising behaviours, ethical questions regarding sensitivities and cultural protocols)

     

  • mind-mapping a concept to create research questions that reveal connections between economic, political, and/or environmental systems (for example, ‘How does shipping connect the UK and Europe?’, ‘What is ship ballast?’, ‘How does ballast water in modern ships affect local waters?’, 

     

  • developing questions to guide the identification and location of useful sources for an inquiry or an enterprise project

Researching

Locate and collect relevant information and data from primary sources and secondary sources

  • determining the most appropriate methods to find information (for example, personal observation, internet searches, primary and secondary sources) including using excursions and field trips (for example, a study trip to a wetlands, a visit to a war memorial, a cultural site, an Asian food festival, a courthouse, a town hall, a not-for-profit enterprise, a bank)

     

  • using a range of methods, including digital technologies, to gather relevant historical, geographical, social, economic and business data and information (for example, through online sources such as census data and databases, and/or interviews and surveys)

     

  • identifying key words to search for relevant information when using search tools, such as internet search engines and library catalogues and indexes and recognising that internet domain names ‘com’, ‘edu’, ‘gov’ are indicators of the provenance of a source

     

  • applying ethical research methods when conducting inquiries with people and communities, including using accepted protocols for consultation with local communities, and conforming with respectful behaviours in sacred or significant sites

     

  • exchanging geographical information from schools in countries of the European region

Organise and represent data in a range of formats including tables, graphs and large- and small-scale maps, using discipline-appropriate conventions

  • categorising information using digital and non-digital graphic organisers (for example, flowcharts, consequence wheels, futures timelines, mapping software, decision-making matrixes, digital scattergrams, spreadsheets, and bibliography templates)

     

  • constructing tables and graphs with digital applications as appropriate to display or categorise data and information for analysis (for example, a table to show the similarities and differences in official languages and religions across a number of countries)

     

  • creating maps using spatial technologies and cartographic conventions as appropriate (including border, source, scale, legend, title and north point) to show information and data, including location (for example, a large-scale map to show the location of places and their features in Britain and countries of Europe; a flow map or small-scale map to show the connections the UK has with European countries such as shipping or migration)

     

  • explaining spatial representations (for example, describing how the representation of the spherical globe on flat paper produces distortions in maps)

Sequence information about people’s lives, events, developments and phenomena using a variety of methods including timelines

  • locating key events, ideas, movements and lives in a chronological sequence on timelines and flowcharts

     

  • developing flowcharts to show steps in a sequence (for example, the flow of goods and services, the passage of a bill through parliament)

     

  • selecting, recording and prioritising the key points made in relation to historical, geographical, civic and economic studies when interviewing people (for example, community or family members who migrated to the UK, war veterans, former refugees, members of parliament, leaders of community organisations, business operators, the experiences of workers of diverse occupations in an industry)

Analysing

Examine primary sources and secondary sources to determine their origin and purpose

  • identifying and distinguishing fact and opinion in information and identifying stereotypes and over-generalisations (for example, over-generalisations about the role of women, the contribution of politicians, the beliefs of religious groups)

     

  • proposing reasons why stereotypes and over-generalisations are evident in sources and media of the past and discussing whether the underlying attitudes and values have changed or might have changed over time

     

  • checking the publishing details of a text to help clarify the publication’s purpose, to identify potential bias in the content and assess its relevance, and to put information presented in an historical or geographical context

     

  • analysing sources to identify persuasive techniques such as modality (for example, ‘would’, ‘could’, ‘may’, ‘might’) and the use of the passive voice (for example, ‘it is claimed that …’) rather than the active voice (‘The government claims that ...’), and considering reasons for these choices

Examine different viewpoints on actions, events, issues and phenomena in the past and present

  • surveying businesses in the local area to find out what influences their choices concerning the way they provide goods and services

     

  • analysing where points of view differ about global issues and exploring the reasons for different perspectives (for example, reasons for varying views on issues such as climate change, coal seam mining, or aid to a country of the European region; different world views of environmentalists)

     

  • discussing issues where there are, or were, a range of views and proposing reasons for different perspectives (for example, the vote for women, how to manage an environment more sustainably)

     

  • exploring historic sources to identify the views of a range of stakeholders affected by Federation and citizenship rights (for example, women, children, men without property)

     

  • critiquing points of view about a sustainability issue (for example, considering producers’ and consumers’ views on the sustainable use of resources)

Interpret data and information displayed in a range of formats to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships

  • analysing sources to identify the causes and effects of past events, developments and achievements (for example, the causes and effects of the struggles for democratic rights)

     

  • using graphic organisers, maps and concept maps to identify patterns (for example, patterns of settlement in regional agricultural areas), trends (for example, changes in British immigration statistics) and cause-effect relationships (for example, relationships between war and the movement of refugees, the correlation of low income and poor health, the effects of consumer decisions on the individual, the broader community and on environmental sustainability)

     

  • interpreting graphic representations and making inferences about patterns and/or distributions (for example, proposing the possible impacts of human activity from an analysis of food webs; reflecting on electoral representation after viewing a plan of the seats held in upper and lower houses of parliament)

     

  • comparing spatial and statistical distributions in thematic maps, choropleth maps and tables to identify patterns and relationships (for example, patterns in per capita income of countries from Europe; the increasing cultural diversity of present day Britain; relationships between human settlement and the changing environment)

     

  • identifying possible relationships by comparing places similar in one major characteristic but different in others (for example, by comparing places with similar climates but with different cultures as a means of identifying the relative influences of climate and culture)

     

Evaluating and reflecting

Evaluate evidence to draw conclusions

  • evaluating and connecting information from various sources to defend a position (for example, the responsibilities associated with British citizenship, the right to build in a place, why a person is considered significant)

     

  • contemplating attitudes and actions of the past that now seem strange and unacceptable and imagining what aspects of current society may be viewed in this way in the future

     

  • proposing reasons why socially sustainable practices such as negotiation, arbitration and Reconciliation and cultural mediation resolve issues peacefully

     

  • drawing conclusions based on identified evidence (for example, using census data to construct arguments for and against migration; business council information to identify the ways different businesses provide goods and services to a community)

Work in groups to generate responses to issues and challenges

  • planning a project, campaign or enterprise around an identified challenge with specification of the sequence of tasks and activities, responsibilities and deadlines

     

  • participating collaboratively on committees, in an enterprise or a simulated parliament taking responsibility for respectful interactions with others

     

  • applying enterprising behaviours (for example, taking on a leadership role in a project, working with others to make decisions)

     

  • brainstorming solutions to an issue that is significant to a group and using negotiation to reach consensus on a preferred approach to resolving the issue

Use criteria to make decisions and judgements and consider advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others

  • relating the decisions made by individuals and organisations to criteria used to evaluate options (for example, the criteria for MBE’s/ OBE’s, for the selection of a school captain)

     

  • examining the trade-offs they might consider when developing criteria for evaluating choices (for example, considering the opportunity cost of choosing one leisure activity over another or considering the trade-offs involved when making a purchasing decision such as a phone)

     

  • applying economics and business knowledge and skills to everyday problems to identify advantages and disadvantages of a proposed response to the issue

     

  • determining a preferred option for action by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of different proposals, surveying people’s views and opinions, analysing the data, and debating and voting on alternatives

Reflect on learning to propose personal and/or collective action in response to an issue or challenge, and predict the probable effects

  • reflecting on what they have learnt in relation to an issue and identifying problems that might be experienced when taking action to address the issue

     

  • collecting evidence to build a case for action that takes account of alternative views, minimises risks and mitigates any negative outcomes

     

  • suggesting a course of action on a global issue that is significant to them and describing how different groups could respond

     

  • reflecting on the civic activities that Pupils  can participate in and the benefits of active and informed citizenship, including the significance of understanding cultural diversity

     

  • identifying the possible effects of decisions that have been made about an economic or business issue

     

  • identifying intercultural experiences and how this may affect future cultural interactions

Communicating

Present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of texts and modes that incorporate source materials, digital and non-digital representations and discipline-specific terms and conventions

  • composing information and expository texts, supported by evidence, to describe conclusions from their economic, civic, historical and geographical inquiries

  • developing persuasive texts such as arguments for a debate, an essay or an opinion piece, citing sources to justify reasoning

     

  • creating narrative accounts and recounts (for example, a digital multimedia story that records migrant experiences) based on information identified from a range of sources and referring to real characters and events

     

  • describing the relative location of places and their features in the UK and in selected countries of the Europe, when investigating and making connections

     

  • selecting and applying appropriate media and strategies to suit and enhance their communication, including the use of graphs, tables, timelines, photographs and pictures, in digital and non-digital modes

     

  • using accurate and subject-appropriate terms, for example, historical terms (such as ‘nation’, ‘democracy’, ‘federation’, ‘empire’, ‘immigration’, ‘deportation’, ‘suffrage’, ‘enfranchisement’, ‘heritage’, ‘diversity’, ‘contribution’, ‘achievement’, ‘significance’, ‘development’, ‘rural’, ‘urban’, ‘bias’, ‘stereotype’, ‘perspective’), geographical terms (such as ‘relative location’, ‘scale’, ‘cultural diversity’, ‘inequality’, ‘interconnections’), civics and citizenship terms (such as ‘Westminster system’, ‘courts’, ‘monarchy’ and ‘three levels of government’) and economics and business terms (such as ‘opportunity cost’, ‘trade-offs’, ‘industry sectors’)

     

History

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the history sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop historical understanding through key concepts including sources, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy and significance. The Year 6 curriculum moves  to the development of Britain as a nation, particularly after 1900. Pupils explore the factors that led to Federation and the different attitudes to Federation and citizenship at the time (continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives). Through studies of people’s experiences of democracy and citizenship over time (perspectives, empathy), Pupils  come to understand the significance of events, ideas and people’s contributions in influencing development of the British system of government (continuity and change, significance). Pupils learn about the way of life of people who migrated to the UK since 1900 and their contributions to Britain’s economic and social development (significance, empathy). In learning about Britain as a nation, Pupils  compare a range of sources to determine points of view (sources, perspectives).


Inquiry Questions


Why and how did Britain become a nation?

How did British society change throughout the twentieth century?

Who were the people who came to the UK? Why did they come?

What contribution have significant individuals and groups made to the development of British society?

Key figures, events and ideas that led to Britain's development and Constitution

  • studying Britain’s path to worldwide impact through an examination of key people 

     

  • identifying key elements of British system of law and government and their origins (for example, the Magna Carta; federalism; constitutional monarchy; the Westminster system and the separation of powers – legislature, executive, judiciary; the houses of parliament; how laws are made)

Experiences of British democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of migrants, women and children

  • investigating the lack of citizenship rights migrants (Windrush) , illustrated by controls on movement and residence, the forcible removal of children from their families leading to the Stolen Generations, and poor pay and working conditions

     

  • investigating the stories of individuals or groups who advocated or fought for rights in twentieth-century Britain 

     

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of women (for example, the suffragette movement, the bar on married women working, equal pay, the Sex Discrimination Act 1984)

     

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of migrant groups (for example, internment camps during World War II, assimilation policies, anti-discrimination legislation, multiculturalism, Reconciliation, mandatory detention, pay and working conditions)

     

  • investigating the experiences of democracy and citizenship of children who were placed in orphanages, homes and other institutions (for example, their food and shelter, protection, education and contacts with family)

Stories of groups of people who migrated to the UK. (including from ONE country of the carribiean region) and reasons they migrated

  • comparing push and pull factors that have contributed to people migrating to the UK (for example, economic migrants and political refugees) from a range of places

     

  • exploring individual narratives using primary sources (for example, letters, documents and historical objects), interviewing and recording an oral history, and presenting the journey and circumstances of arrival based on the sources (for example, through drama)

     

  • describing cultural practices related to family life, beliefs and customs of newly arrived migrant groups and comparing these with those of the communities in which they settled within Britain

     

  • connecting stories of migration to Pupils ’ own family histories (where appropriate)

The contribution of individuals and groups to the development of British society

  • examining population data that show the places of birth of Britain’s people at one or more points of time in the past and today

     

  • investigating the role of specific cultural groups in British economic and social development (for example, the farm industry, the Welsh Mountains)

     

  • considering notable individuals in British public life across a range of fields (for example, the arts, science, sport, education), including a range of cultural and social groups, and women and men drawn from t the Queen’s Honours lists)

     

  • considering the contribution of groups and organisations in the development of the UK in the twentieth century 

Geography

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the geography sub-strand provides opportunities to develop Pupils’ understanding of place, space, environment, interconnection and change. Pupils explore the diverse environments, peoples and cultures within Europe and at a global level (space, place, environment) and expand their mental map of the world. Pupils  examine Britain’s various connections with other countries and places throughout the world, how these are changing, and the effects of these interconnections (interconnections, change).


Inquiry Questions


How do places, people and cultures differ across the world?

What are Britain's global connections between people and places?

How do people’s connections to places affect their perception of them?

The geographical diversity of Europe and the location of its major countries in relation to the UK 

  • using geographical tools (for example, a globe wall map or digital application such as Google Earth) to identify the geographical division of Europe into North-East, South-East, South Europe and West Europe (the Middle East)

     

  • exploring the diversity of environments and types of settlement in Europe, or in part of the region, or in a country in either North-East, South-East or South Europe and discussing any patterns

     

  • investigating the differences in the population size, density, life expectancy and per capita income between countries across the world

     

  • describing the location of places in countries of Europe in absolute terms using latitude and longitude

The geographical diversity of Europe and the location of its major countries in relation to the UK 

  • researching the population size and density of a selection of countries around the world

     

  • investigating the relationship between per capita income, health (as measured by life expectancy) and energy consumption in a selection of countries around the world, including at least one country from Europe

     

  • comparing people’s lives in places with different levels of income

The world’s cultural diversity, including that of its indigenous peoples

  • identifying examples of indigenous peoples who live in different regions in the world (for example, the Maori of Aotearoa New Zealand, the First Nations of North America and the Orang Asli of Malaysia and Indonesia), appreciating their similarities and differences, and exploring the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

     

  • investigating sustainability of the environments in which many indigenous peoples have lived sustainably over time

     

  • investigating the similarities and differences in official languages, religions and spiritual traditions between Britain and selected countries of Europe  and other parts of the world

     

  • researching the proportion of the British population and of the population from their local area who were born in each world cultural region, using data from the National Office of  Statistics and then comparing aspects of selected cultures

Britain's connections with other countries and how these change people and places

  • researching connections between Britain and countries in the world and Pacific regions (for example, in terms of migration, trade, tourism, aid, education, defence or cultural influences) and explaining the effects of at least one of these connections on their own place and another place in the UK 

     

  • exploring the provision of Britain’s government or non-government aid to a country elsewhere in the world and analysing its effects on places in that country

Civics and citizenship

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the civics and citizenship sub-strand provides opportunities for Pupils  to develop understanding about government and democracy, laws and citizens and citizenship, diversity and identity. Pupils  study the key institutions of Britain’s democratic government, including local government and parliaments, and the responsibilities of electors and representatives (government and democracy). Pupils  learn how governments laws are made in a parliamentary system (law). Pupils examine British citizenship and reflect on the rights and responsibilities that being a citizen entails (citizenship and identity), and explore the obligations that people may have as global citizens (citizenship, diversity and identity).


Inquiry Questions


What are the roles and responsibilities of the different levels of government in Britain ?

How are laws developed in Britain ?

What does it mean to be an British citizen?

The key institutions of Britain’s democratic system of government and how it is based on the Westminster system

  • explaining the role of the monarchy and its representatives in the UK including  parliaments and courts in Britain’s system of government
  •      
  • recognising the importance of the Westminster system and the Magna Carta in influencing Britain’s parliamentary government

     

  • investigating sites virtually or in situ associated with key democratic institutions to explore their roles, such as the Houses of Parliament in London 

The responsibilities of electors and representatives in Britain’s democracy

  • considering the responsibilities of electors (for example, enrolling to vote, being informed and voting responsibly)

     

  • identifying the characteristics that would make for a ‘good’ representative at the local or national level

The responsibilities of electors and representatives in Britain’s democracy

  • investigating where ideas for new laws come from (for example, from party policy, perhaps announced during an election campaign; from suggestions by members and senators; from interest groups in the community)

     

  • exploring how bills are debated and scrutinised (for example, the role of parliamentary committees and the ability of citizens to make submissions to these committees)

     

  • identifying the role of the Executive in relation to the development of policies and the introduction of bills, including the role of Cabinet in approving the drafting of a bill and the role of the public service in drafting and implementing legislation

The shared values of British citizenship and the formal rights and responsibilities of British citizens 

  • investigating how people become British citizens

     

  • discussing the British citizenship pledge and comparing it to the former oath of allegiance to the monarch to explore notions of allegiance

     

  • clarifying the formal rights and responsibilities of British citizenship and comparing these to the rights and responsibilities of non-citizens

     

  • exploring how laws protect human rights (for example, gender, disability, race and age discrimination law)

     

  • exploring the experiences of people who have migrated to Britain and who have taken up British citizenship (for example, those of Asian heritage)

The obligations citizens may consider they have beyond their own national borders as active and informed global citizens

  • identifying the obligations people may consider they have as global citizens (for example, an awareness of human rights issues, concern for the environment and sustainability, being active and informed about global issues)

     

  • describing dual citizenship and its implications for identity and belonging

     

  • using a current global issue (for example, immigration across borders or clearing native forests to establish palm oil plantations) to discuss the concept of global citizenship

Economics and business

Concepts for developing understanding


The content in the economics and business sub-strand develops key ideas, with a focus on developing Pupils ’ understanding of opportunity cost and why decisions about the ways resources are allocated to meet needs and wants in their community involve trade-offs. The limited nature of resources means that businesses and consumers make choices (resource allocation and making choices). This involves consumers choosing what to purchase and businesses choosing the way they provide goods and services (consumer literacy, business environment). Pupils  consider the effect of consumer and financial decisions on individuals, the community and the environment (consumer and financial literacy). The emphasis is on community or regional issues, with opportunities for concepts to also be considered in national, regional or global contexts where appropriate.




Inquiry Questions


Why are there trade-offs associated with making decisions?

What are the possible effects of my consumer and financial choices?

Why do businesses exist and what are the different ways they provide goods and services?

How the concept of opportunity cost involves choices about the alternative use of resources and the need to consider trade-offs

  • explaining why when one choice is made, the next best alternative is not available (trade-off) (for example, if a student chooses to spend their time (resource) riding their bike after school, they cannot go for a swim (trade-off))

     

  • explaining why choices have to be made when faced with unlimited wants and limited resources (for example, by compiling a list of personal needs and wants, determining priorities (including sustainability of natural environments) and identifying the needs and wants that can be satisfied with the resources available)

     

  • exploring some national needs and wants in the UK (for example, access to water, education, health care) and comparing resource limitations and decisions

The effect that consumer and financial decisions can have on the individual, the broader community and the environment

  • exploring how a decision to buy an item affects the family (for example, ‘Did the family have to put off buying another item to have this one?’)

     

  • investigating whether buying at the local supermarket helps the local community

     

  • considering if their actions have an effect on the environment (for example, does choosing to use recyclable shopping bags have an effect on the natural environment?)

     

  • investigating questions (for example, ‘Does what my family buys in the supermarket affect what businesses might sell or produce?’)

The reasons businesses exist and the different ways they provide goods and services

  • identifying why businesses exist (for example, to produce goods and services, to make a profit, to provide employment) and investigating the different ways that goods and services are provided to people such as through shopping centres, local markets, online, small independent stores, remote community stores

     

  • explaining the difference between not-for-profit and for-profit businesses

     

  • distinguishing between businesses in the primary, secondary and tertiary industry sectors and discussing what they produce or provide (such as agriculture and mining; textiles and food; and information, tourism and telecommunications)

By the end of Year 6, Pupils  explain the significance of an event/development, an individual and/or group. They identify and describe continuities and changes for different groups in the past and present. They describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the experiences of different people in the past. Pupils  describe, compare and explain the diverse characteristics of different places in different locations from local to global scales. They describe how people, places, communities and environments are diverse and globally interconnected and identify the effects of these interconnections over time. Pupils explain the importance of people, institutions and processes to Britain’s democracy and legal system. They describe the rights and responsibilities of British citizens and the obligations they may have as global citizens. Pupils  recognise why choices about the allocation of resources involve trade-offs. They explain why it is important to be informed when making consumer and financial decisions. They identify the purpose of business and recognise the different ways that businesses choose to provide goods and services. They explain different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.


Pupils develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation. They locate and collect useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different perspectives in the past and present. They interpret data to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships, and evaluate evidence to draw conclusions. Pupils sequence information about events, the lives of individuals and selected phenomena in chronological order and represent time by creating timelines. They organise and represent data in a range of formats, including large- and small-scale maps, using appropriate conventions. They collaboratively generate alternative responses to an issue, use criteria to make decisions and identify the advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to an issue or challenge and describe the probable effects of their proposal. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials, mapping, graphing, communication conventions and discipline-specific terms.


History 

By the end of Year 6 Pupils  explain the significance of an event/development, an individual or group. They identify and describe continuities and changes for different groups in the past. They describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the experiences of different people in the past.


Pupils sequence information about events and the lives of individuals in chronological order and represent time by creating timelines. When researching, Pupils  develop appropriate questions to frame a historical inquiry. They identify a range of primary and secondary sources and locate, collect, organise and categorise relevant information to answer inquiry questions. They analyse information or sources for evidence to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different perspectives. Pupils develop texts, particularly narrative recounts and descriptions. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their information, they use historical terms and concepts, and incorporate relevant sources.


Geography

 By the end of Year 6, Pupils explain the significance of an event/development, an individual and/or group. They identify and describe continuities and changes for different groups in the past and present. They describe the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the experiences of different people in the past. Pupils describe, compare and explain the diverse characteristics of different places in different locations from local to global scales. They describe how people, places, communities and environments are diverse and globally interconnected and identify the effects of these interconnections over time. Pupils explain the importance of people, institutions and processes to Britain’s democracy and legal system. They describe the rights and responsibilities of British citizens and the obligations they may have as global citizens. Pupils recognise why choices about the allocation of resources involve trade-offs. They explain why it is important to be informed when making consumer and financial decisions. They identify the purpose of business and recognise the different ways that businesses choose to provide goods and services. They explain different views on how to respond to an issue or challenge.


Pupils develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation. They locate and collect useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and to identify different perspectives in the past and present. They interpret data to identify, describe and compare distributions, patterns and trends, and to infer relationships, and evaluate evidence to draw conclusions. Pupils sequence information about events, the lives of individuals and selected phenomena in chronological order and represent time by creating timelines. They organise and represent data in a range of formats, including large- and small-scale maps, using appropriate conventions. They collaboratively generate alternative responses to an issue, use criteria to make decisions and identify the advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to an issue or challenge and describe the probable effects of their proposal. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials, mapping, graphing, communication conventions and discipline-specific terms.


Civics 

By the end of Year 6, Pupils explain the role and importance of people, institutions, and processes to Britain's democracy and legal system. They describe the rights and responsibilities of British citizens and the obligations they may have as global citizens.

     

Pupils develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation about the society in which they live. They locate, collect and organise useful information from a range of different sources to answer these questions. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and describe different perspectives. They evaluate information to draw conclusions. When planning for action, they identify different points of view and solutions to an issue. They reflect on their learning to identify the ways they can participate as citizens in the school or elsewhere. They present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials and civics and citizenship terms and concepts.


Business and enterprise 

By the end of Year 6, Pupils recognise why choices about the allocation of resources involve trade-offs. They explain why it is important to be informed when making consumer and financial decisions. They identify the purpose of business and recognise the different ways that businesses choose to provide goods and services.

     

Pupils develop appropriate questions to frame an investigation about an economics or business issue, challenge or event. They locate and collect useful data and information from primary and secondary sources. They examine sources to determine their origin and purpose and evaluate evidence to draw conclusions. They interpret, organise and represent data in a range of formats using appropriate conventions. They generate alternative responses to an issue or challenge and identify the advantages and disadvantages of preferring one decision over others. They reflect on their learning to propose action in response to a challenge and identify the possible effects of their decision. They apply economics and business knowledge and skills to familiar problems. Pupils  present ideas, findings, viewpoints and conclusions in a range of communication forms that incorporate source materials and economics and business terms.

Announcement

Please sign up for SZAPP (click on SZAPP) to receive the weekly updates and correspondance as we are trying to reduce the amount of paper going home. Copies will always be available in the office. 

Reminder for Parents and Carers:  Just to remind you all that children do not need to be in school on Friday 18th October as this is an Inset Day.

Canoeing fun

10 Jul 2019

On Thursday 27th and Friday 28th June, some of our Year 6 children experienced a canoeing taster day organised by the Axe Vale Canoe Club in Axmouth. They enjoyed paddling up the river beyond Axmouth,...

Royal Maths Institute afternoon

05 Apr 2019

RI Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science Masterclasses are hands-on and interactive extracurricular sessions led by top experts from academia and industry for keen a...

Fabulous Friction!

05 Apr 2019

Colyton Grammar School Science Department came and did a workshop called 'Fabulous Friction!'. Since then, Year 5 have worked hard on their own projects and we now have two entries for the science fai...

World War One Workshop

05 Apr 2019

A World War One soldier visited for Year 5 and 6 to show them what it was like to live during this time.

Magdalen Farm Forest School

11 Dec 2018

Forest School – a day at Magdalen Farm! On Thursday 6th December, Miss Mayes and Mrs Kew had the pleasure of taking six children to Magdalen Farm for a Forest School day.  The purpose of th...

Acorn MAT supports local fallen hero's

15 Nov 2018

Chidren from Axminster Academy, Mrs E's and Chardstock all came together to lay tributes to the 68 men, from the parish of Axminster, who died in WW1. A wonderful service included readign fromthe chil...

Acorn MAT supports local fallen hero's

15 Nov 2018

Chidren from Axminster Academy, Mrs E's and Chardstock all came together to lay tributes to the 68 men, from the parish of Axminster, who died in WW1. A wonderful service included readign fromthe chil...

New lease of life for play area in North Street, Axminster

27 Jun 2018

Axminster Community Primary Academy and Little Acorns @ Axminster are so proud to support this wonderful project. The children really felt a strong desire to improve the local community and I am immen...

Canoeing

08 Jun 2018

14 children from Year 5 and 6 went canoeing on Wednesday 6th June to the Axe Vale Canoe Club in Axmouth. Everyone really enjoyed the day paddling up the estuary and River Axe beyond Axmouth and p...

New arrivals

13 Mar 2018

We have some new arrivals and Beech class are taking full advantage to use them as a model for descriptive sentences! 

World Book Day

09 Mar 2018

On Friday 9th March, the children (and staff) all came into school dressed as a character from their favourite book.  The costumes were amazing!  Thank you to all parents and carers who help...

Early Years Activities

26 Feb 2018

The children in our Early Years Centre have been very busy recently.  They have been talking about their pets and the children and some of our teachers have brought in photos of their animals for...

Maple & Spruce classes

05 Feb 2018

Maple and Spruce class Pupils in Year 3 and 4 have been busy working on their latest topic – Extreme Animals.  The children have discovered a multitude of fascinating facts about animals &...

@Bristol

18 Jul 2017

On Monday 26th June, Spruce and Rowan classes went to @Bristol Science Museum to support their learning of the science curriculum.  They had a fabulous day and were able to learn more about frict...

Sports Day

18 Jul 2017

Today Axminster Community Primary Academy held its annual Sports Day.  Thankfully the recent heatwave was over and we were able to hold the event as scheduled.  Our children excelled in the...

Axe Vale Festival

18 Jul 2017

The children of Spruce and Rowan classes have been working hard, with Mrs Hogarth the Art Teacher, designing a poster on the theme "Axminster Carnival" for the Axe Vale Festival. Although all the chil...

Tadpole update

18 Jul 2017

The tadpoles that Beech Class were studying last term have continued to thrive! 

Election Week

18 Jul 2017

Here at Axminster Community Primary Academy, a decision was made to change the names of our four team colours Red, Blue, Green and Yellow. With the general elections drawing closer, our school council...